Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Delusions (ACT)
Symptoms of schizophrenia have historically been treatment resistant despite advances in psychopharmacology. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been shown through some preliminary research to be effective with psychotic symptoms (Bach & Hayes, 2002). ACT is considered part of the "third wave of CBT" along with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2001). The target of change in ACT is acceptance of symptoms as experiences that a person can have without experiencing distress, and while living a life in accordance with one's values.
The current study assessed the effectiveness of ACT (8 sessions) for delusions. Participants received treatment as usual throughout the study. The intervention followed the protocol of ACT described in Hayes, Strosahl and Wilson (1999) in which treatment will consist of building acceptance, willingness, and commitment to change, clarifying values, defusion of thoughts and feelings, as well as defusion of self. These therapeutic aims attempted to be achieved by the practice of various exercises in and out of session as well as the discussion of various metaphors within session. It was hypothesized that participants will exhibit decreased distress due to delusions, decreased delusional conviction and a reduction of overall anxiety levels from participants' baselines.
Behavioral: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Delusions|
- This study will illustrate how patients' distress due to delusional thinking decreases over time when comparing baseline to treatment, treatment to outcome, and then outcome to follow-up. [ Time Frame: 4-6 months ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
|Study Start Date:||April 2008|
|Study Completion Date:||June 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||June 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy will be administered to all subjects.
Behavioral: Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Considered part of the "third wave of CBT" along with Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) and Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2001), ACT is built upon the strong, research-based foundation of CBT. However, while CBT for psychosis focuses on reducing symptoms, ACT focuses on changing the way in which the person experiences his or her symptoms so that the person can still live his or her life in accordance with his or her life values. Specifically, CBT attempts to reduce delusions by disputing the evidence for the delusion and ACT attempts to increase the person's ability to live his or her life while still experiencing delusions (Hayes, Strosahl & Wilson, 1999).
Other Name: ACT
Four patients were recruited from New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College, Payne Whitney Clinic (Manhattan Campus), outpatient psychiatric program. Patients were randomly assigned to a length of baseline before beginning the 8-week ACT treatment. There was be a five-week baseline period for all patients after which two patients will be introduced to ACT treatment in weekly increments. All patients received treatment as usual throughout baseline and ACT treatment. During baseline, patients were assessed by an independent rater every week and during ACT treatment, patients were assessed every other week and at a one-month follow-up. Each participant's assessment results were compared over time, so that there will be an established baseline level of functioning which will be compared to his or her level of functioning during treatment, at the end of treatment, and finally at the one-month follow-up. Hypotheses: It was hypothesized that patients' distress, anxiety and tension due to delusional thinking would decrease over time when comparing baseline to treatment, treatment to outcome, and then outcome to follow-up. Additionally, the number of delusional thoughts and the rate of re-hospitalization was hypothesized to decrease over time.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00657631
|United States, New York|
|Weill Cornell Medical College Oupatient Treatment Program of New York Presbyterian Hospital|
|New York, New York, United States, 10065|
|Principal Investigator:||Yulia Landa, Psy.D.||Weill Medical College of Cornell University|