Primary Outcome Measures:
- Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics of two dosing regimens of levofloxacin in renally impaired and dialysis patients.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Safety of two dosing regimens of levofloxacin in renally impaired and dialysis patients.
In this multiple-dose study conducted at 4 centers, the pharmacokinetics of two dosing regimens of levofloxacin were assessed in medically stable men and women with varying degree of renal function. The study consisted of a 21 day pretreatment screening phase, a 7-day open label treatment phase, and a 7 day posttreatment phase (or a follow-up phase for subjects with early study withdrawal). Patients were randomized into 1 of 10 treatment groups, for a total of 6 patients per group, based on degree of renal function to ensure that creatinine clearance values within each group represented the full range of values defined in the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) 1998 guideline for pharmacokinetic studies in patients with impaired renal function. Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study. All patients received a single 750-mg dose of levofloxacin on Day 1; subsequent doses of either 250, 500, or 750 mg of levofloxacin (q24h or q48h) were based on renal function. Blood samples were collected from each patient from Day 1 to Day 14 for pharmacokinetic evaluation. Urine was collected on Days 1 and 7 before dosing and over specific time intervals up to 24 or 48 hours postdosing depending on the patient's dosing regimen. Dialysate samples were collected on Day 7 from HD patients immediately before dosing (as dialysis began) and at the end of the dialysis treatment. Patients were confined overnight at the study unit on Days 0, 1, 6, and 7, and remained confined until the 24 hour blood samples were collected on Days 2 and 8. Safety was based on the incidence, relationship to therapy, and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events and on changes in clinical laboratory values (hematology, chemistry, and urinalysis), vital sign measurements, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and physical examination findings. Single 750-mg dose of levofloxacin on Day 1; subsequent doses of Levofloxacin 250 milligram (mg), 500 mg, and 750 mg tablets administered every 24 hours for 7 days or every 48 hours for 7 days