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CyberKnife Radiosurgical Treatment of Inoperable Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00643318
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : March 26, 2008
Last Update Posted : August 15, 2019
University of Pittsburgh
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Accuray Incorporated

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to assess the short and long-term outcomes after CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients who are medically inoperable.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Radiation: CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery Phase 2

Detailed Description:
The objectives of this clinical evaluation are to assess the outcomes of patients who undergo stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to treat primary early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients (comprising of two cohorts, peripheral and central) who are not candidates for surgical resection because of high operative risks. In particular, the effect of CyberKnife SRS on clinical response rate, local control, progression-free survival, overall survival, dyspnea and QOL (for U.S. sites), and radiological findings over two years after treatment will be evaluated.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 40 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Prospective Evaluation of Outcomes of Radiosurgical Treatment of Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Study Start Date : April 2006
Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 2020
Estimated Study Completion Date : February 2020

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery Radiation: CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery

Central tumors defined as < 2 cm from carina and < 2 cm from right and left mainstem bronchus and/or < 2 cms from the right and left upper lobe bronchus, bronchus intermedius, middle lobe bronchus, and the right and left lower lobe bronchus. For central tumors, 4 fractions of 12 Gy will be delivered (12 Gy x 4 fractions = 48 Gy)

Peripheral tumors are defined as being > 2 cms from the carina and > 2 cms from the right and left mainstem bronchus and/or > 2 cms from the right and left upper lobe bronchus, bronchus intermedius, middle lobe bronchus and the right and left lower lobe bronchus. For peripheral tumors, 3 fractions of 20 Gy will be delivered (20 Gy x 3 fractions = 60 Gy)

Other Names:
  • CyberKnife
  • Stereotactic Radiosurgery
  • Radiosurgery
  • Radiation Therapy

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Local progression-free survival, local disease progression, clinical response rate, regional recurrence-free survival, distant recurrence-free survival. [ Time Frame: 5 years ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. To characterize and compare quality of life before and after stereotactic radiosurgery treatment. To assess procedure-related outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery of lung tumors. [ Time Frame: 5 years ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Patient must be over the age of 18 years
  2. Pulmonary nodule with maximum diameter ≤ 5 cm
  3. Histological confirmation of primary NSCLC
  4. The following stage of NSCLC patients are eligible:

    • Stage I: T1 N0 M0 or T2 N0 M0 (Tumor size ≤ 5 cm)
    • Stage II: T3 N0 M0 (Chest wall invasion only, Tumor size ≤ 5 cm)
  5. ECOG/Zubrod status of 0, 1 or 2
  6. Thoracic surgery consultation should be obtained from a Board Certified Thoracic surgeon who in collaboration with a radiation oncologist should determine that the patient is not a surgical candidate.
  7. In order to be considered medically inoperable, the patient must meet at least one major criteria or a minimum of 2 minor criteria as described below:


    1. FEV1 < 50% or predicted postoperative FEV1 < 40%
    2. DLCO < 50% or predicted postoperative DLCO < 40%
    3. Exercise induced maximal exercise oxygen consumption M VO2 < 15 mL/kg/min
    4. High-risk cardiac disease: Any one of the following:

      • Poor left ventricular function (defined as an ejection fraction of <=20%)
      • Unstable coronary syndromes (unstable angina or severe angina Canadian class III or IV).
      • Severe valvular disease (critical valvular stenosis),
      • Recent myocardial infarction (< 1 month),
      • Significant arrhythmia defined by one of the following: High-grade AV block, Symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias in the presence of underlying heart disease, Supraventricular arrhythmias with uncontrolled ventricular rate


    1. Age > 75
    2. Pulmonary hypertension (defined as a pulmonary artery systolic pressure greater than 40 mm Hg)
    3. Oxygen requirement (using the Medicare criteria for home oxygen requirements [i.e., room air oxygen saturation of 88% or less])
    4. Resting or exercise arterial pO2 ≤ 55 mm Hg OR SpO2 ≤ 88%.
    5. pCO2 > 45 mm Hg
    6. Congestive heart failure (any three of the following must be documented: dyspnea, peripheral edema, chest x-ray with interstitial edema or cardiomegaly, rales, or congestion)
    7. Moderately depressed left ventricular function (defined as an ejection fraction of 21-40% or less)
    8. Severe cerebral (with CVA or recent TIA) or severe peripheral vascular disease
    9. Diabetes Mellitus with severe organ damage such as ESRD, Blindness, Vascular disease.
    10. Severe end organ damage from other causes resulting in ESRD, cirrhosis of the liver or vascular disease
    11. FEV1 51%-60% or predicted postoperative FEV1 41-50%
    12. DLCO 51-60% or predicted postoperative DLCO 41-50%
    13. Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale ≥ grade 3
  8. Females of child-bearing age must be using a reliable form of birth control.
  9. The patient must have a PET-CT scan within 8 weeks of registration.
  10. The patient must provide a signed and dated written informed consent PRIOR to registration and prior to undergoing any study-related procedures.
  11. The patient must provide written authorization to allow the use and disclosure of their protected health information.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Excluding the primary cancer targeted for this treatment, the patient has a prior history of cancer (within the last 5 years) or concurrent cancer other than basal cell or squamous skin cancer.
  2. Visible endobronchial lesion seen in the trachea, carina, major bronchus, lobar or segmental bronchus on bronchoscopy or microscopic disease detected in the trachea, carina, major bronchus, lobar or segmental bronchus.
  3. The patient's weight exceeds the tolerances of the institution's imaging and CyberKnife platform/couch.
  4. The patient has received thoracic radiation therapy in the same field as the planned treatment area in the past.
  5. The patient has completed chemotherapy within less than 30 days of treatment.
  6. T2: Tumor size > 5 cm, T3 tumors (except T3 by virtue of chest wall invasion and ≤ 5 cm), T4 tumors. Presence of N1, N2 or N3 disease per previously described criteria would be excluded.
  7. Pancoast tumors would be excluded.
  8. Current distant metastatic disease (M1) (preferably biopsy proven).
  9. The patient is a female with child-bearing potential who refuses to take a pregnancy test prior to treatment.
  10. The patient is pregnant or a female who is nursing an infant.
  11. The patient is planning on undergoing systemic therapy within 2 weeks after the last fraction of radiation
  12. The patient has an active systemic or pulmonary infection.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00643318

Show Show 23 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Accuray Incorporated
University of Pittsburgh
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Study Chair: James Luketich, MD University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Additional Information:
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Responsible Party: Accuray Incorporated Identifier: NCT00643318    
Other Study ID Numbers: ACCL001.0
First Posted: March 26, 2008    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: August 15, 2019
Last Verified: August 2019
Keywords provided by Accuray Incorporated:
lung cancer
lung tumor
non-small cell lung cancer
lung surgery
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Lung Neoplasms
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung
Respiratory Tract Neoplasms
Thoracic Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Carcinoma, Bronchogenic
Bronchial Neoplasms