Try the modernized beta website. Learn more about the modernization effort.
Working… Menu

Allopurinol Add-on Treatment for Refractory Mania

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00643123
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 26, 2008
Results First Posted : April 13, 2018
Last Update Posted : May 8, 2019
National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Itai Danovitch, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

Brief Summary:
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of allopurinol as an augmentation agent for treatment resistant mania and mixed mania.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Bipolar Disorder Mixed Mania Treatment-Resistant Mania Drug: Allopurinol Other: Placebo Phase 4

Detailed Description:

Bipolar disorder is a severe mental disorder with episodes of mania and depression. Current medications for mania can have significant side effects, high costs and the need for blood monitoring. The purpose of this research study is to study the effectiveness of allopurinol, in combination with lithium or valproic acid or carbamazepine, for treatment-resistant bipolar mania and mixed mania. This research study is designed to test the safety and/or effectiveness of allopurinol that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for recurrent calcium renal calculus, gout, hyperuricemia (cancer and tumor lysis syndrome), but it is not approved for use in treatment-resistant bipolar mania or mixed mania.

Participants in this double-blind study will be randomly assigned to one of two study groups. The first group will receive the study medication of allopurinol while the second group will receive a placebo. These will be taken in conjunction with current medications and doses. The study will last for 7 weeks (an initial screening, a baseline visit and 4 follow-up visits at weeks 1,2,4, and 6). The initial screening visit will be used to determine whether or not the subject is able to participate in the study. The following will be conducted during the screening visit: Review of medical and psychiatric history along with standard psychiatric assessment exams; Physical examination, including review of prior and current medications and adverse drug effects; An electrocardiogram (ECG) - a painless test which is done by attaching straps or pads to your limbs and chest and recording the electrical pattern of your heart, will be done to record your heart rhythm; About 5 tablespoons of blood will be drawn to assess basic laboratory values that show if you are healthy enough to participate in the study; Blood levels of lithium, valproic acid, and/or carbamazepine will be measured; A urine sample will be collected to test for the presence of illegal drugs and for pregnancy test (if you are a female of child-bearing potential); Collection of demographic data (e.g., age, gender, marital status, social and vocational status) and other information including health beliefs, and knowledge of illness. At the baseline visit the participant will be given questionnaires related to mood, quality of life, disability, medications, and side effects. The participant's vitals (temperature, weight, heart rate, and blood pressure) will be measured. The participant will be randomized to treatment (300 mg of allopurinol/day) or placebo. After week one at the Week 1 visit, those that have tolerated the dosage of allopurinol will get an increased dosage. The participant will also complete a set of questionnaires. Vitals will be taken. The remaining follow-up visits will be similar to visit one except that there will be no more increases in dosage; Week 2 will include a blood draw to measure levels of lithium, valproic acid, and/or carbamazepine in the participant's blood, and the final visit at Week 6 will in addition include a blood draw, and exit physical exam, and a urine sample will be collected.

Layout table for study information
Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 40 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled Augmentation Study With Allopurinol for Treatment Resistant Mania
Study Start Date : September 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : June 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : June 2010

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Allopurinol
Subjects will be randomized to allopurinol at a fixed dose of 300 mg/day for the first week and then 600mg/day while continuing their current medications during the 7-week study. A battery of assessments will be administered at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 after baseline. At each assessment, subjects will also be asked about side effects including potential side effects of allopurinol. Side effects will be assessed by the Treatment Emergent Side Effects Scale. Serum levels of lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, atypical antipsychotics or atypical antipsychotic metabolite, uric acid blood levels will be drawn at screen and at week 6 after baseline. Subjects taking only lithium, valproic acid, and/or carbamazepine will also have their serum levels drawn at week 2.
Drug: Allopurinol
300-600 mg/day over a 6 week period
Other Name: Zyloprim

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Subjects will be randomized to placebo and will follow the same protocol as the allopurinol group.
Other: Placebo
Inactive substance

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) [ Time Frame: 7 weeks (Baseline and 6 weeks (or last visit date) after baseline ]

    The YMRS is an 11-item, clinician-administered rating scale to assess the severity of manic symptoms before, during and after treatment. There are four items that are graded on a 0 to 8 scale (irritability, speech, thought content, and disruptive/aggressive behavior), while the remaining seven items are graded on a 0 to 4 scale. A score of 0 indicates the behavior is absent, whereas a score of 4 or 8 indicates the behavior is present and severe.

    The change in score between Baseline and the Completion Visit will be reported. Ideally, the two time points will be Baseline and 6 Weeks after Baseline, but, if a subject terminates early, his/her last YMRS score will be carried forward to the final visit.

    The scores from each question are added together to form a total score ranging from 0 to 60, with higher scores indicating a greater severity of symptoms. A score of 0-12 indicates the absence of mania or a very mild manic state, a score of 13-20 or higher indicates a mild man

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) [ Time Frame: 7 weeks ]

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is a clinician-administered tool used to determine a patient's level of depression before, during, and after treatment. A 28-item HAM-D form was used but only the first 17 questions are used in the assessment for depression. Of the first 17 questions, eight items are scored on a 5-point scale, ranging from 0 = not present to 4 = severe. Nine are scored from 0-2. The sum of the scores from the first 17 questions is: 0-7 = normal, 8-13 = mild depression, 14-18 = moderate depression, 19-22=severe depression and ≥ 23=very severe depression.

    Questions 18-28 are scored similarly and assess sleep disorders, paranoid behavior, motor dysfunction, psychosis, and weight gain, etc.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 70 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects must be between ages 18 and 70.
  • Subjects must meet DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder, most recent episode manic or mixed, at the time of screening confirmed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
  • Subjects must be taking at least one medication for mania (lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine) at a therapeutic dose for at least 4 weeks.
  • Subjects must have non-response or partial response to medications as evidenced by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score greater than or equal to 14 at screening and at baseline.
  • Female subjects must be either postmenopausal for at least 1 year, surgically sterile, abstinent or practicing an effective method of birth control if sexually active. Female subjects must also have a negative urine pregnancy test at screening, baseline and other time points throughout the study.
  • Subjects must be able and willing to comply with self-administration of medication or have consistent help/support available.
  • Subjects must have signed an informed consent document indicating that they understand the purpose of and procedures required for the study and are willing to participate in the study.
  • Subjects must be able and willing to meet or perform study requirements (e.g. answer self-administered questionnaires).
  • Subjects must be willing to allow study staff to contact subject's regular psychiatrist while the subject is in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Subjects who are unable to provide informed consent.
  • Subjects with a serious, unstable medical illness (such as cardiovascular, respiratory, neurologic, hematologic, renal, hepatic, endocrine, immunologic, or other systemic illness), a history of cerebrovascular disease, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or AIDS. Subjects with chronic illness must be stable and otherwise physically healthy on the basis of a physical examination, medical history, electrocardiogram and the results of blood biochemistry, hematology tests and a urinalysis.
  • Subjects with a history of substance abuse or dependence (excluding nicotine and caffeine) according to DSM-IV criteria within last 4 weeks.
  • Subjects taking azathioprine, mercaptopurine, apalcillin, and/or amoxicillin.
  • Subjects taking dopamine agonists and/or anti-psychotics.
  • Subjects who have been intoxicated with alcohol or illicit drugs within 3 days prior to baseline.
  • Subjects with a history of severe pre-existing gastrointestinal narrowing or inability to swallow oral study medication whole with the aid of water.
  • Female subjects who are pregnant or nursing.
  • Subjects who have previously participated in this study.
  • Subjects with an anticipated life expectancy of 6 months or less.
  • Subjects who have received an experimental drug or used an experimental medical device within 1 month of screening.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00643123

Layout table for location information
United States, California
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90048
Sponsors and Collaborators
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia and Depression
Layout table for investigator information
Study Chair: Itai Danovitch, M.D. Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Layout table for additonal information
Responsible Party: Itai Danovitch, Chairman, Department of Psychiatry, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Identifier: NCT00643123    
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB8981
First Posted: March 26, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: April 13, 2018
Last Update Posted: May 8, 2019
Last Verified: May 2019
Keywords provided by Itai Danovitch, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center:
Bipolar Disorder
Mixed mania
Treatment-Resistant mania
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Layout table for MeSH terms
Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Mental Disorders
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Enzyme Inhibitors
Gout Suppressants
Antirheumatic Agents
Free Radical Scavengers
Protective Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs