The Oral Contraceptive Pill for Premenstrual Worsening of Depression
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Percent Change in Luteal Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 2 months ]
The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale is a widely used 10-item clinician-rated scale that describes the severity of depressive symptoms. It has a range of 0-60 with higher scores indicating greater symptom burden. Participants were assessed at baseline and during 2nd treatment month in order to calculate the change in MADRS score.
Secondary Outcome Measures
Percent Change in Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 2 months ]
The DRSP is a 24-item self-administered daily dairy that assesses the severity of mood and physical symptoms which occur as part of the premenstrual syndrome and PMDD. Each question is rated on a scale of 1-6 with a total score range from 24-144. A higher score indicates greater symptom burden.
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Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years to 45 Years (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Women who are non-smokers between the ages of 18-45 years (smokers 18-34 years);
Regular menstrual cycles (26-34 days in length, predictable within 7 days) for the past 6 months;
Determination that the antidepressant medication was initiated for the treatment of unipolar major depression, minor depression (depression, not otherwise specified), or dysthymia. Major depression and dysthymia will be evaluated through administration of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Minor depression will be evaluated by administration of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-IV(SCID)10 section J.3.
Use of an antidepressant for at least 3 months for treatment of a depressive disorder, with stable dose for at least 2 months. It is acceptable to be on more than one psychiatric medication as long as one of them is an antidepressant.
Expected continued use of the same antidepressant at the same dose for the duration of the study;
30% increase of the mid-follicular phase Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score to the late-luteal phase MADRS will be required for eligibility during the tracking phase of the study and will be assessed prospectively over 1 menstrual cycle.
Normal pelvic exam and PAP smear in the past 12 months;
Normal TSH at screen - if on thyroid medication, must be on a stable dose for 2 months or greater, and have a normal TSH at screen;
Negative serum HCG at baseline, and negative urine HCG at visits 3 and 5;
Normal potassium (K) levels at screen;
Willingness to use barrier contraceptive methods during the study, if sexually active;
Good general health.
Amenorrhea or irregular menstrual periods (defined as unable to predict within 7 days) during past 6 months
Pregnancy or breastfeeding (serum HCG test administered at baseline study visit, and urine HCG at visits 3 and 5)
Current cigarette smoking in women who are older than 34 years
Presence of any of the following psychiatric and substance use disorders, based on administration of the MINI at the baseline study visit:
Any history of mania or hypomania suggesting bipolar disorder Any lifetime history of a psychotic disorder
Depression deemed by the physician investigator to be too severe to be treated in the study
Use of benzodiazepines or antipsychotic to target premenstrual symptoms
Luteal-phase dose adjustment of the antidepressant. Use of a hormone releasing IUD (intrauterine device)
Use of an OCP or other systemic hormonal therapies (oral, transdermal or injection preparations of androgens, estrogens, or progestins) in the past 2 months;
Any contraindication or previous adverse event to any OCP therapy;
Current use of ketoconazole, rifampin, carbamazepine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine, modafinil, phenytoin, or phenobarbital (because of interaction with hormonal therapy).
Current use of potassium-sparing agents, such as potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g., spironolactone), ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, heparin, aldosterone antagonists, NSAIDS, potassium sparing diuretics or potassium-supplements (because of risk of developing arrhythmia with two potassium-elevating agents).
Hepatic dysfunction, renal insufficiency, pulmonary, adrenal, or metabolic diseases (including elevated serum potassium levels, if known) that may put subject at risk when treated with study medication.