Primary Outcome Measures:
- Determine if HT protect against age-associated memory and cognitive longitudinal decline in women age 65 and older as measured over time by a series of cognitive tests administered annually. [ Time Frame: Annual assessment done annually. ]
The primary outcome measures are the changes in scores from a standardized neuropsychological assessment will be conducted annually. The battery is comprised primarily of tests of memory, and includes the following tests in specified order: the Prospective Memory Tests, Primary Mental Abilities Vocabulary Test, the California Verbal Learning Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, Card Rotations Test, the Finger Tapping Test, the Letter and Semantic Fluency Test and the Digit Span Test. In addition, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Geriatric Depression Scale will be administered.
Secondary Outcome Measures:
WHISCA is an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the WHI Memory Study (WHIMS) and has enrolled 2303 women aged 66 to 84 years who did not meet the criteria for dementia. WHISCA is investigating the effects of hormone therapy on rates of change over time in memory, other aspects of cognition (language, attention, spatial ability), motor function, and mood.
- Does HT protect against age-associated memory and cognitive longitudinal decline in women age 65 and older?
- What is the rate of change in memory and other cognitive abilities in women receiving HT compared to women receiving placebo?
- Does the addition of progesterone to HT modify the effects of estrogen on memory and other cognitive abilities?