Primary Outcome Measures:
Well-diagnosed consecutive patients with cirrhosis were enrolled through a designed questionnaire to obtain basic information about gender, age, etiology of cirrhosis, conventional liver function tests, serum AFP level, education level, substance use including smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing, history of familial HCC, etc. Then the patients was followed by periodic abdominal sonography examination and determination of AFP and liver function. If AFP elevated or liver nodule appears, effort to diagnose HCC will be performed.If HCC was performed, the survival will be followed-up. As anti-viral therapy was found to decrease risk for HCC, patients with those therapy will be excluded.