Protocolized vs Nonprotocolized Treatment of Adult ED Patients With Acute Severe Pain

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00627367
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : March 3, 2008
Results First Posted : April 5, 2018
Last Update Posted : April 5, 2018
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Andrew Chang, MD, Montefiore Medical Center

Brief Summary:
Patients treated with protocolized pain management (1 mg of IV hydromorphone followed by an additional 1 mg IV hydromorphone if the patient wants more) will have better pain relief and no more adverse events than patients receiving non-protocolized pain management.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Acute Pain Drug: Hydromorphone Drug: Nonprotocolized Phase 3

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 224 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Protocolized Versus Non-protocolized Treatment of Adult ED Patients With Acute Severe Pain
Actual Study Start Date : December 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : March 2008

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Protocolized
1mg IV hydromorphone followed by an additional 1mg at 15 minutes if the patient answer "yes" to the question, "Do you want more pain medication?"
Drug: Hydromorphone
Hydromorphone 1mg IV, followed by an optional dose of 1mg IV hydromorphone 15 minutes
Other Name: Dilaudid

Active Comparator: Nonprotocolized
An IV opioid the type and dose of which will be determined by the treating clincian
Drug: Nonprotocolized
An IV opioid the type and dose of which will be determined by the treating clinician
Other Name: Usual Care

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Patient Reported Change in Pain Intensity From Initial Administration of Analgesics (Baseline) to 60 Minutes Post-baseline. [ Time Frame: 60 minutes ]
    Pain intensity is rated on the numerical rating scale (NRS), measured in integer units from 0 ("no pain") to 10 ("worst pain imaginable"). The change in pain intensity subtracts the NRS score given by the patient 60 minutes after treatment was administered from the baseline NRS score (before treatment in the Emergency Department).

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Ages Eligible for Study:   21 Years to 64 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age 21 to 64 years: Patients under the age of 21 are automatically triaged to the Children's Hospital at Montefiore Emergency Department, and hence cannot be enrolled in this study. Age 64 was selected as an upper range for inclusion because substantial evidence supports age as being an important determinant of morphine requirement over longer periods of time.
  2. Pain with onset within 7 days: Pain within seven days is the definition of acute pain that has been used in ED literature.
  3. Emergency Department (ED) attending physician's judgment that patient's pain warrants use of intravenous opioids: The factors that influence the decision to use intravenous opioids are complex and extensive. An approach that is commonly taken to address the issue of patient selection in drug trials is to use a specific condition (e.g., renal colic) or treatment (e.g., post-hysterectomy) that would generally be thought to be appropriately treated with an opioid analgesic, thereby eliminating individual judgment about eligibility for the study. However in order to assess the role of intravenous (IV) opioids with the widest generalizability in the ED setting, we decided to enroll patients with a variety of diagnoses, all with a complaint of acute pain. Opioids are not an appropriate treatment for all patients who present with a complaint of pain (e.g., gastroenteritis, migraine). Therefore either a comprehensive list of diagnoses and situations in which opioids are indicated must be specified, or clinical judgment needs to be used. We have opted for the latter alternative.
  4. Normal mental status: In order to provide measures of pain experienced the patient needs to have a normal mental status. Orientation to person, place and time will be used as an indicator of sufficiently normal mental status to participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Prior use of methadone: the effect of methadone use on the perception of acute pain is unknown and suspected to be altered.
  2. Use of other opioids, tramadol, or heroin in the past seven days: to avoid introducing bias related to opioid tolerance that may alter the response to intravenous opioids thereby masking the effects of the medications administered.
  3. Prior adverse reaction to morphine, hydromorphone, or other opioids: An exception will be if the patient has received opioid medications in the past without adverse event (i.e. a patient may state he is allergic to morphine but has received hydromorphone in the past without any adverse effects)
  4. Chronic pain syndrome: frequently recurrent or daily pain for at least 3 months resulting in alteration in pain perception which is thought to be due to down-regulation of pain receptors. Examples of chronic pain syndromes include sickle cell anemia, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, migraine, and peripheral neuropathies.
  5. Alcohol intoxication: the presence of alcohol intoxication may alter the perception, report, and treatment of pain. Alcohol intoxication will be determined to exist as judged by the treating physician.
  6. Systolic Blood Pressure < 90 mm Hg: Opioids produce peripheral vasodilation that may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope.
  7. Use of monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in past 30 days: MAO inhibitors have been reported to intensify the effects of at least one opioid drug causing anxiety, confusion and significant depression of respiration or coma.
  8. Weight less than 100 pounds: we are concerned that hydromorphone in doses up to 2 mg may not be safe in patients weighing less than 100 lbs.
  9. Baseline room air oxygen saturation less than 95%: since IV opioids may cause respiratory depression and result in hypoxemia, we are excluding this subgroup of patients.
  10. C02 measurement greater than 46: In accordance with a similar study (04-12-360), four subsets of patients will have their CO2 measured using a handheld capnometer prior to enrollment in the study. If the CO2 measurement is greater than 46, then the patient will be excluded from the study. The 4 subsets are as follows:

    1. All patients who have a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    2. All patients who have a history of sleep apnea
    3. All patients who report a history of asthma together with greater than a 20 pack-year smoking history
    4. All patients reporting less than a 20 pack-year smoking history who are having an asthma exacerbation

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00627367

United States, New York
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, New York, United States, 10467
Sponsors and Collaborators
Montefiore Medical Center
Principal Investigator: Andrew Chang, M.D. Montefiore Medical Center

Responsible Party: Andrew Chang, MD, MD, Montefiore Medical Center Identifier: NCT00627367     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: MMC 0710359
First Posted: March 3, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: April 5, 2018
Last Update Posted: April 5, 2018
Last Verified: April 2018

Keywords provided by Andrew Chang, MD, Montefiore Medical Center:
Acute Pain, Emergency Department, ED, Hydromorphone, Dilaudid Protocolized Nonprotocolized Usual Care

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Acute Pain
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Analgesics, Opioid
Central Nervous System Depressants
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents