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Risperidone and Zotepine in the Treatment of Delirium

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified January 2008 by Changhua Christian Hospital.
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
Information provided by:
Changhua Christian Hospital Identifier:
First received: January 31, 2008
Last updated: February 11, 2008
Last verified: January 2008

Delirium is an organic psychiatric syndrome characterized by fluctuating consciousness and impairment in perception, cognition and behavior. In hospitalized elderly, the prevalence of delirium ranges from 10% to 40%. If untreated, delirium is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of delirium consists of identifying and managing underlying medical abnormalities and the associated psychiatric symptoms. Conventional antipsychotics have been the mainstay of treatment of agitation and psychosis associated with delirium; but their use is limited in terms of EPS side effects. Second-generation antipsychotic agents have been reported to have a lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia which has resulted in their increased use in the treatment of delirious patients. However, there is still no consensus regarding standard pharmacologic treatment of this syndrome that takes use of second-generation antipsychotic agents into account.

Risperidone and zotepine have a lower incidence of EPS and are effective in treating disturbing psychotic behaviors. We hope to compare the efficacy and safety of risperidone and zotepine in the treatment of delirium and the correlation between the severity of delirium with autonomic dysfunction.

Condition Intervention Phase
Delirium Drug: Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Risperidone and Zotepine in the Treatment of Delirium

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Changhua Christian Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Delirium rating scale [ Time Frame: 1/2 day, then every 24 hours ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • MMSE, CGI, side effect profile, HRV [ Time Frame: 12 hours, then every 24 hours ]

Estimated Enrollment: 60
Study Start Date: January 2008
Estimated Study Completion Date: January 2009
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: 1
zolpidem , start from 50mg/day then titrate according to individual case
Drug: Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium
try risperidone or zolpidem in the treatment of delirium
Other Name: risperidone( Risperdal), zolpidem( Lodopine)
Active Comparator: 2
Risperidone, start from 1mg/day
Drug: Risperidone and Zolpidem for delirium
try risperidone or zolpidem in the treatment of delirium
Other Name: risperidone( Risperdal), zolpidem( Lodopine)

Detailed Description:
Qualified inpatients will be enrolled and randomly given a flexible-dose regimen of Risperidone or Zotepine. Autonomic dysfunction is checked using analysis of heart rate variability before any active drug given. The initial starting dose of each drug is 1mg(risperidone) or 50 mg(zotepine) once a day. The dosage was increased depending on the status of delirium during the first 7 days and will be adjusted until patients are maximally stabilized or until intolerable adverse events necessitated cessation. Risperidone or zotepine will be tapered off in 10 days when patients are considered stable. No concomitant psychotropic medications will be used during the study except for lorazepam, which are given for severe agitation or insomnia . Patients are assessed by another rater blinded to active drug at the time of enrollment, the subsequent 12, 24,and then assessed daily until discharge. The study period is estimated to be around 12 months upon the designed number of subjects are reached.

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 85 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Patients may be included in the study if they meet all of the following criteria:DSM-IV-TR delirium (293.0 delirium due to general medical condition, 290.3 dementia with delirium 290.41, arteriosclerotic dementia with delirium 780.09delirium NOS. 292.8 substance-induced delirium( excluding alcohol and BZD)
  • Age 18 to 85 year-old inpatients; either sex
  • Patients are able to take Risperidone or Zotepine orally

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Alcohol-induced delirium; delirium caused by seizures; Sedative, hypnotic or anxiolytic withdrawal delirium
  • Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder or being treated with antipsychotics
  • Patients are mandatory to take parenteral treatments
  • Patients are known to be allergic to Risperidone or Zotepine
  • Women with pregnancy or during lactation.
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00622011

Contact: Cheng-Chen Chang, M.D. 886-4-7238595 ext 7172

Changhua Christian Hospital Recruiting
Changhua, Taiwan, 500
Contact: Cheng-Chen Chang, M.D.    886-4-7238595 ext 7172   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Changhua Christian Hospital
Principal Investigator: Cheng-Chen Chang, M.D. Changhua Christian Hospital
  More Information

Responsible Party: Cheng-Chen Chang, Changhua Christian Hospital, Psy. Dept. Identifier: NCT00622011     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CCH070906
CCH grant
Study First Received: January 31, 2008
Last Updated: February 11, 2008

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Neurobehavioral Manifestations
Neurologic Manifestations
Nervous System Diseases
Signs and Symptoms
Neurocognitive Disorders
Mental Disorders
Serotonin Antagonists
Serotonin Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antipsychotic Agents
Tranquilizing Agents
Central Nervous System Depressants
Psychotropic Drugs
Dopamine Antagonists
Dopamine Agents
Hypnotics and Sedatives
GABA-A Receptor Agonists
GABA Agonists
GABA Agents processed this record on August 18, 2017