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Depression Prevention for Pregnant Women on Public Assistance

This study has been completed.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Caron Zlotnick, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island Identifier:
First received: January 22, 2008
Last updated: January 29, 2014
Last verified: January 2014
This study will evaluate the effectiveness of an interpersonal therapy treatment called the Postpartum Prevention Program in preventing the development of postpartum depression in pregnant women who are financially disadvantaged.

Condition Intervention Phase
Depression, Postpartum Depression Behavioral: The Postpartum Prevention Program (PPP) Behavioral: Enhanced care as usual (ECU) Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Depression Intervention for Financially Disadvantaged Pregnant Women.

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Caron Zlotnick, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Examination (LIFE) [ Time Frame: Measured at Months 3, 6, and 12 postpartum ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Adjustment disorder or depression not otherwise specified (NOS) as measured by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID) [ Time Frame: Measured within Month 6 postpartum ]

Enrollment: 207
Study Start Date: January 2006
Study Completion Date: December 2012
Primary Completion Date: December 2012 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Participants assigned to the Postpartum Prevention Program
Behavioral: The Postpartum Prevention Program (PPP)
PPP includes interpersonal therapy sessions as well as distribution of educational material on postpartum depression. The group sessions will take place during the participant's last trimester of pregnancy. There will be four weekly sessions prior to delivery and one booster session within the first 2 weeks of the postpartum period.
Participants assigned to enhanced care as usual
Behavioral: Enhanced care as usual (ECU)
ECU includes the usual medical care provided for pregnant women at the Women's Primary Care Center at Women and Infants Hospital as well as the provision of educational material and a list of treatment resources for postpartum depression. Participants will also receive more intensive follow-up in terms of their mental health status than is typically provided in usual practice.

Detailed Description:

Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in approximately 10% to 16% of mothers who have recently delivered babies. The impact of PPD is profound, causing considerable emotional pain for the mother as well as possible disturbances in infant development and later child adjustment. If left untreated, the mother's depression may cause strain on family life and her relationship with her child. Further research is needed to discover treatments to effectively reduce the risk of experiencing PPD. Despite preliminary findings that suggest that psychosocial treatments may prevent postpartum mood disturbances, few studies have examined the effects of preventive therapy to reduce PPD in women at risk for PPD. An area of even greater neglect is the testing of such a treatment for financially disadvantaged women, who represent a group at high risk for PPD and a group less likely to access treatment for depression than middle-class women. The Postpartum Prevention Program (PPP), an interpersonal therapy program targeting factors that may play a significant role in the development of PPD, may be helpful in reducing the occurrence of PPD. This study will compare the effectiveness of PPP to enhanced care as usual (ECU) in preventing PPD in financially disadvantaged women who are pregnant.

Participation in this single-blind study will last until 1 year after delivery. All potential participants will answer an initial questionnaire concerning stresses that may increase the risk of depression, including relationship and emotional difficulties. Selected participants will then undergo an interview about symptoms of depression, emotional difficulties, and alcohol and drug use. Participants identified as having depression will be provided appropriate referrals for treatment and their study participation will end. Participants invited to continue with the study will be randomly assigned to receive PPP or ECU. Participants assigned to receive PPP will attend four weekly 90-minute group sessions prior to delivery and one individual 50-minute booster session within 2 weeks of delivery. During these sessions, participants will learn ways to manage stress and negative feelings and how to access social support resources. Participants assigned to ECU will receive the usual medical care provided for pregnant women, educational material on PPD, and a list of referrals and resources.

All participants will complete questionnaires and interviews about their emotional difficulties, relationships with others, and use of services for these difficulties prior to treatment assignment; 4 weeks after treatment assignment; 3 weeks after delivery; and 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery. Participants will also be seen briefly at the hospital at the time of delivery and 3, 6, and 12 months after delivery to assess mother-infant relationships. All questionnaires and assessments will take between 60 and 90 minutes to complete.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 40 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Speaks and comprehends English sufficiently to complete the study procedures
  • Willing and able to receive public assistance
  • Between 20 and 34 weeks of gestation
  • Score of greater than 27 on the Cooper Risk Survey to identify risk of PPD

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Currently receiving mental health services from a healthcare provider
  • Meets criteria for a current affective disorder, anxiety disorder (excluding simple phobia), substance use disorder, or psychosis, as determined by the relevant modules of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Nonpatient Version (SCID-NP)
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00601757

United States, Rhode Island
Womens' Care Inc.
Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 02903
Women and Infants Hospital
Providence, Rhode Island, United States, 02905
Thundermist Health Center
Woonsocket, Rhode Island, United States, 02895
Sponsors and Collaborators
Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Principal Investigator: Caron Zlotnick, PhD Women and Infants Hospital
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Caron Zlotnick, Director of Behavioral Medicine Research, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island Identifier: NCT00601757     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: R01MH071766 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
Study First Received: January 22, 2008
Last Updated: January 29, 2014

Keywords provided by Caron Zlotnick, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island:
Preventive Intervention
Postpartum Depression
Women on Public Assistance

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Depressive Disorder
Depression, Postpartum
Behavioral Symptoms
Mood Disorders
Mental Disorders
Puerperal Disorders
Pregnancy Complications processed this record on September 19, 2017