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Phase 2B Study of PTC124 (Ataluren) in Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/BMD)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00592553
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 14, 2008
Results First Posted : April 7, 2020
Last Update Posted : April 7, 2020
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
PTC Therapeutics

Brief Summary:
DMD/BMD is a genetic disorder that develops in boys. It is caused by a mutation in the gene for dystrophin, a protein that is important for maintaining normal muscle structure and function. Loss of dystrophin causes muscle fragility that leads to weakness and loss of walking ability during childhood and teenage years. A specific type of mutation, called a nonsense (premature stop codon) mutation is the cause of DMD/BMD in approximately 13 percent (%) of boys with the disease. Ataluren is an orally delivered, investigational drug that has the potential to overcome the effects of the nonsense mutation. This study is a Phase 2b trial that will evaluate the clinical benefit of ataluren in boys with DMD/BMD due to a nonsense mutation. The main goals of the study are to understand whether ataluren can improve walking, activity, muscle function, and strength and whether the drug can safely be given for a long period of time.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Becker Muscular Dystrophy Drug: Ataluren Drug: Placebo Phase 2

Detailed Description:
This study is a Phase 2b, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, efficacy and safety study, designed to document the clinical benefit of ataluren when administered as therapy of patients with DMD/BMD due to a nonsense mutation (premature stop codon) in the dystrophin gene.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 174 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase 2B Efficacy and Safety Study of PTC124 in Subjects With Nonsense-Mutation-Mediated Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy
Actual Study Start Date : February 29, 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : December 31, 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : December 31, 2009


Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: High-Dose Ataluren
Participants will receive ataluren suspension orally 3 times a day (TID), 20 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg) at morning, 20 mg/kg at midday, and 40 mg/kg at evening (total daily dose 80 mg/kg) for 48 weeks.
Drug: Ataluren
Ataluren will be administered as per the dose and schedule specified in the respective arms.
Other Name: PTC124

Experimental: Low-Dose Ataluren
Participants will receive ataluren suspension orally TID, 10 mg/kg at morning, 10 mg/kg at midday, and 20 mg/kg at evening (total daily dose 40 mg/kg) for 48 weeks.
Drug: Ataluren
Ataluren will be administered as per the dose and schedule specified in the respective arms.
Other Name: PTC124

Placebo Comparator: Placebo
Participants will receive placebo matched to ataluren orally TID at morning, midday, and evening for 48 weeks.
Drug: Placebo
Placebo matching to ataluren will be administered as the schedule specified in the respective arm.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change From Baseline in 6MWD at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    The 6MWD test was performed in a 30 meters long flat corridor, where the participant was instructed to walk as far as possible, back and forth around two cones, with the permission to slow down, rest, or stop if needed. Ambulation was assessed via the 6MWD test following standardized procedures by measuring the 6MWD in meters. Participants were not permitted to use assistive devices (walker, long leg braces, or short leg braces) during the 6MWD test.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change From Baseline in Time to Stand From Supine Position at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    If the time taken to perform this test exceeded 30 seconds or if a participant could not perform this test due to disease progression, a value of 30 seconds was used. Change from baseline data has been reported.

  2. Change From Baseline in Time to Walk/Run 10 Meters at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    If the time taken to perform this test exceeded 30 seconds or if a participant could not perform this test due to disease progression, a value of 30 seconds was used. Change from baseline data has been reported.

  3. Change From Baseline in Time to Climb 4 Stairs at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    If the time taken to perform this test exceeded 30 seconds or if a participant could not perform this test due to disease progression, a value of 30 seconds was used. Change from baseline data has been reported.

  4. Change From Baseline in Time to Descend 4 Stairs at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    If the time taken to perform this test exceeded 30 seconds or if a participant could not perform this test due to disease progression, a value of 30 seconds was used. Change from baseline data has been reported.

  5. Change From Baseline in Force Exerted During Knee Flexion and Extension, Elbow Flexion and Extension, and Shoulder Abduction at Week 48, as Assessed by Myometry [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    Upper and lower extremity myometry was performed using a myometer following standardized procedures. Muscle groups evaluated included knee flexors, knee extensors, elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and shoulder abductors. Bilateral assessments were done and 3 measurements were recorded from each muscle group on each side if possible. Mean values for the left and right sides were calculated.

  6. Change From Baseline in Mean Activity Period/Day/Visit at Week 48, as Assessed by Step Activity Monitoring (SAM) [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    The SAM is a pedometer (worn on the ankle) that continuously records the number of steps per time interval. Participants were instructed to continue to wear the SAM for at least 9 consecutive days. SAM was used to record the number of strides/minute following each visit. A stride is the leg motion that begins when the foot with SAM leaves the floor and ends when the same foot touches the floor again (that is, a stride generally equals 2 steps). Mean activity period/day/visit was computed for each participant. Mean obtained during Screening (Week -6 to -1) and following Week 1 visit were used as baseline data for analysis. For each day, an active period was defined as the first time after 3:00 AM that greater than (>) 2 strides/minute were recorded to the last time prior to midnight that >2 strides/minute were recorded. Days were deleted on which such an active period was less than (<) 50 percent (%) of the mean active period across all days for that participant's visit.

  7. Change From Baseline in Mean Total Step Count/Day/Visit During the Active Periods at Week 48, as Assessed by SAM [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    The SAM is a pedometer (worn on the ankle) that continuously records the number of steps per time interval. Participants were instructed to continue to wear the SAM for at least 9 consecutive days. SAM was used to record the number of strides/minute following each visit. A stride is the leg motion that begins when the foot with SAM leaves the floor and ends when the same foot touches the floor again (that is, a stride generally equals 2 steps). Mean total step count/day/visit during the active periods was computed for each participant. Mean obtained during Screening (Week -6 to -1) and following Week 1 visit were used as baseline data for analysis. For each day, an active period was defined as the first time after 3:00 AM that >2 strides/minute were recorded to the last time prior to midnight that >2 strides/minute were recorded. Days were deleted on which such an active period was <50% of the mean active period across all days for that participant's visit.

  8. Change From Baseline in Mean Total Step Count/Hour During the Active Period at Week 48, as Assessed by SAM [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    The SAM is a pedometer (worn on the ankle) that continuously records the number of steps per time interval. Participants were instructed to continue to wear the SAM for at least 9 consecutive days. SAM was used to record the number of strides/minute following each visit. A stride is the leg motion that begins when the foot with SAM leaves the floor and ends when the same foot touches the floor again (that is, a stride generally equals 2 steps). Mean total step count/hour during the active periods for the days in a visit was computed for each participant. Mean obtained during Screening (Week -6 to -1) and following Week 1 visit were used as baseline data for analysis. For each day, an active period was defined as the first time after 3:00 AM that >2 strides/minute were recorded to the last time prior to midnight that >2 strides/minute were recorded. Days were deleted on which such an active period was <50% of the mean active period across all days for that participant's visit.

  9. Change From Baseline in Maximum Continuous 10-minute, 20-minute, 30-minute, and 60-minute Total Step Count at Week 48, as Assessed by SAM [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    SAM is a pedometer (worn on the ankle) that continuously records the number of steps per time interval. Participants were instructed to continue to wear the SAM for at least 9 consecutive days. SAM was used to record the number of strides/minute following each visit. A stride is the leg motion that begins when the foot with SAM leaves the floor and ends when the same foot touches the floor again (that is, a stride generally equals 2 steps). The maximum continuous 10-minute, 20-minute, 30-minute, and 60-minute total step counts were computed for each participant. Mean obtained during Screening (Week -6 to -1) and following Week 1 visit were used as baseline data for analysis. For each day, an active period was defined as the first time after 3:00 AM that >2 strides/minute were recorded to the last time prior to midnight that >2 strides/minute were recorded. Days were deleted on which such an active period was <50% of the mean active period across all days for that participant's visit.

  10. Change From Baseline in Percentage of Time During the Active Period Spent at Low Activity (Less Than or Equal to [≤] 15 Steps/Minute), Medium Activity (16-30 Steps/Minute), and High Activity (Greater Than [>]30 Steps/Minute) at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    SAM is a pedometer(worn on the ankle) that continuously records the number of steps per time interval. Participants were instructed to continue to wear the SAM for at least 9 consecutive days. SAM was used to record the number of strides/minute following each visit. A stride is the leg motion that begins when the foot with SAM leaves the floor and ends when the same foot touches the floor again. Proportion of time during active periods spent at low activity(≤15 steps/minute), medium activity(16-30 steps/minute), and high activity(>30 steps/minute) were computed for each participant. Mean obtained during Screening and following Week 1 visit were used as baseline data for analysis. For each day, an active period was defined as first time after 3:00 AM that >2 strides/minute were recorded to the last time prior to midnight that >2 strides/minute were recorded. Days were deleted on which such an active period was <50% of the mean active period across all days for that participant's visit.

  11. Change From Baseline in Participant- Reported Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) as Measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Physical, Emotional, Social, and School Functioning Domain Scores at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    HRQL was measured via the PedsQL. The generic core module (including physical, emotional, social and school functioning scales) comprises 23 questions and the fatigue-specific module (including general fatigue, sleep/rest fatigue, and cognitive fatigue scales) comprises an additional 18 questions. The PedsQL was completed by both the participant and/or a parent/caregiver. Examples of items in each of the generic core module scales include: "It is hard for me to run"; "I feel sad or blue"; "I cannot do things that other kids my age can do;" and "It is hard to pay attention in class." Each of the generic core module items was scored on a 5-point likert response scale from 0 (never a problem) to 4 (almost always a problem). Scores were transformed on a scale from 0 to 100 (0=100, 1=75, 2=50, 3=25, 4=0), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life. Change from Baseline was calculated by subtracting the Baseline value from the value at Week 48.

  12. Change From Baseline in Parent/Caregiver- Reported HRQL as Measured by the PedsQL Physical, Emotional, Social, and School Functioning Domain Scores at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    HRQL was measured via the PedsQL. The generic core module (including physical, emotional, social and school functioning scales) comprises 23 questions and the fatigue-specific module (including general fatigue, sleep/rest fatigue, and cognitive fatigue scales) comprises an additional 18 questions. The PedsQL was completed by both the participant and/or a parent/caregiver. Examples of items in each of the generic core module scales include: "It is hard for me to run"; "I feel sad or blue"; "I cannot do things that other kids my age can do;" and "It is hard to pay attention in class." Each of the generic core module items was scored on a 5-point likert response scale from 0 (never a problem) to 4 (almost always a problem). Scores were transformed on a scale from 0 to 100 (0=100, 1=75, 2=50, 3=25, 4=0), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life. Change from Baseline was calculated by subtracting the Baseline value from the value at Week 48.

  13. Change From Baseline in Participant-Reported HRQL as Measured by the Total Fatigue Scale Score at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    HRQL was measured via the PedsQL. The fatigue-specific module (including general fatigue, sleep/rest fatigue, and cognitive fatigue scales) comprises an additional 18 questions. PedsQL was completed by both the participant and/or a parent/caregiver. Fatigue-specific module obtains information relating to items such as: "I feel too tired to do things that I like to do"; "I spend a lot of time in bed"; and "I have trouble remembering more than one thing at a time;" Each of the fatigue-specific module items was scored on a 5-point likert response scale from 0 (never a problem) to 4 (almost always a problem). Scores were transformed on a scale from 0 to 100 (0=100, 1=75, 2=50, 3=25, 4=0), with higher scores indicating less fatigue. Total score was the sum of all items over the number of items answered on all scales. Change from Baseline was calculated by subtracting the Baseline value from the value at Week 48.

  14. Change From Baseline in Parent/Caregiver-Reported HRQL as Measured by the Total Fatigue Scale Score at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    HRQL was measured via the PedsQL. The fatigue-specific module (including general fatigue, sleep/rest fatigue, and cognitive fatigue scales) comprises an additional 18 questions. The PedsQL was completed by both the participant and/or a parent/caregiver. Fatigue-specific module obtains information relating to items such as: "I feel too tired to do things that I like to do"; "I spend a lot of time in bed"; and "I have trouble remembering more than one thing at a time;" Each of the fatigue-specific module items was scored on a 5-point likert response scale from 0 (never a problem) to 4 (almost always a problem). Scores were transformed on a scale from 0 to 100 (0=100, 1=75, 2=50, 3=25, 4=0), with higher scores indicating less fatigue. Total score was the sum of all items over the number of items answered on all scales. Change from Baseline was calculated by subtracting the Baseline value from the value at Week 48.

  15. Parent/Caregiver-Reported Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) Score [ Time Frame: Week 48 ]
    TSQM consisted of 14 questions about treatment satisfaction with drug in 4 domains: Effectiveness (Questions 1-3 scored as 1 [extremely dissatisfied] to 7 [extremely satisfied]), Side Effects (question 4 scored as 0 [no] or 1 [yes]; question 5 scored as 1 [extremely bothersome] to 5 [not at all bothersome]; questions 6 - 8 scored as 1 [a great deal] to 5 [not at all]), Convenience (questions 9 and 10 scored as 1 [extremely difficult] to 7 [extremely easy]; question 11 scored as 1 [extremely inconvenient] to 5 [extremely convenient]) and Global Satisfaction (question 12 scored as 1 [not at all confident] to 7 [extremely confident]; question 13 scored as 1 [not at all certain] to 5 [extremely certain]; question 14 scored as 1 [extremely dissatisfied] to 5 [extremely satisfied]). The scores of each of the domains were added together and an algorithm was used to create a score of 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better treatment satisfaction.

  16. Change From Baseline in Participant/Caregiver-Reported Number of Daily Accidental Falls at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    Number of falls was determined by daily diary records maintained by participants and/or parent/caregivers.

  17. Change From Baseline in Number of Digits Recalled Forwards and Backwards on Digit Span Task at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    Basic attention and working memory was measured using the digit span task. A series of digits (0-9) were presented to the child in an auditory format only. The task had 2 parts; in the forward condition, the child was requested to repeat back the digits in the order they were presented and in the backward condition, he was requested to reverse the order of presentation. A raw score of the total number of correct responses was converted to an age-scaled-score (z-score) by subtracting the corresponding mean and dividing by the corresponding standard deviation of a reference population for that age.

  18. Change From Baseline in Heart Rate Before, During, and After Each 6MWT at Week 48, as Assessed by Heart Rate Monitoring With the Polar® RS400 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    The heart rate was measured with a Polar RS400 heart rate monitor, which consists of a transmitter strap worn around the chest and a wristwatch receiver. The monitor produces a digital text file with 1 value per minute that represents the mean heart rate for that minute. Mean heart rates values were collected prior to, during, and after the 6MWT. The participant rested for 5 minutes in a sitting position prior to the 6MWT, and the mean heart rate for the last minute of this rest period was collected and documented as the resting heart rate. During the 6MWT, the mean heart rate was collected and documented as the active heart rate. After completing the 6MWT and resting for 3 minutes, the mean heart rate for 1 minute was collected and documented as the recovery heart rate.

  19. Change From Baseline in Serum Concentration of Creatine Kinase (CK) at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline, Week 48 ]
    Blood samples collected for chemistry assays were used to quantify serum CK concentrations. Serum CK was assessed as a potential biomarker for muscle fragility, with a reduction in serum CK considered to be a positive outcome.

  20. Percent Change From Pre-Treatment Visit (1 Week Prior to Baseline Visit) in Biceps Muscle Dystrophin Expression at Post-Treatment Visit (Week 36), as Determined by Immunofluorescence [ Time Frame: Pre-Treatment (1 week prior to baseline), post-treatment (Week 36) ]
    Immunofluorescence evidence of a change in dystrophin expression on biceps muscle biopsy was defined as an increase in the staining of the sarcolemmal membrane with an antibody to the C-terminal portion of the dystrophin protein (excluding revertant fibers) between the pre-treatment (1 week prior to Baseline visit) and post-treatment (Week 36) biopsies. The biceps muscle was biopsied from one arm for confirmation of the absence or reduced levels of dystrophin prior to treatment initiation and from the other arm to assess for production of dystrophin post-treatment.


Other Outcome Measures:
  1. Percentage of Participants With Treatment-Emergent Adverse Events (AEs) [ Time Frame: Baseline up to Week 54 ]
    An AE was any untoward medical occurrence in a participant who received study drug without regard to possibility of causal relationship. Serious adverse event (SAE) was an AE resulting in any of the following outcomes or deemed significant for any other reason: death; initial or prolonged inpatient hospitalization; life-threatening experience (immediate risk of dying); persistent or significant disability/incapacity; congenital anomaly. AEs included both SAEs and non-serious AEs. Treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) was defined as an adverse event that occurred or worsened in the period extending from first dose of study drug to 6 weeks after the last dose of study drug. A summary of other non-serious AEs and all SAEs, regardless of causality is located in the 'Reported AE section'.

  2. Study Drug Compliance [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 48 ]
    Study drug compliance was assessed by participant daily diary and quantification of used and unused study drug. Compliance was assessed in terms of the percentage of drug actually taken relative to the amount that should have been taken during the study.



Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   5 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Gender Based Eligibility:   Yes
Gender Eligibility Description:   Consistent with the X-linked genetic basis and natural history of DBMD, all of the participants were males.
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Ability to provide written informed consent (parental/guardian consent if applicable)/assent (if <18 years of age).
  • Male sex.
  • Age ≥5 years.
  • Phenotypic evidence of DMD/BMD based on the onset of characteristic clinical symptoms or signs (that is, proximal muscle weakness, waddling gait, and Gowers' maneuver) by 9 years of age, an elevated serum CK level, and ongoing difficulty with ambulation.
  • Documentation of the presence of a nonsense point mutation in the dystrophin gene as determined by gene sequencing from a laboratory certified by the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act/Amendment (CLIA), or an equivalent organization.
  • Documentation that a blood sample has been drawn for confirmation of the presence of a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene.
  • Ability to walk ≥75 meters unassisted during the screening 6-minute walk test. Note: Other personal assistance or use of assistive devices for ambulation (for example, short leg braces, long leg braces or walkers) were not permitted.
  • Confirmed screening laboratory values within the central laboratory ranges (hepatic, adrenal, renal, and serum electrolytes parameters).
  • In participants who were sexually active, willingness to abstain from sexual intercourse or employ a barrier or medical method of contraception during the study drug administration and 6-week follow-up periods.
  • Willingness and ability to comply with scheduled visits, drug administration plan, study procedures, laboratory tests, and study restrictions. Note: Psychological, social, familial, or geographical factors that might preclude adequate study participation (in particular, the ability to satisfactorily perform the 6MWT) should have been considered.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Treatment with systemic aminoglycoside antibiotics within 3 months prior to start of study treatment.
  • Initiation of systemic corticosteroid therapy within 6 months prior to start of study treatment or change in systemic corticosteroid therapy (for example, initiation, change in type of drug, dose modification not related to body weight change, schedule modification, interruption, discontinuation, or reinitiation) within 3 months prior to start of study treatment.
  • Any change (initiation, change in type of drug, dose modification, schedule modification, interruption, discontinuation, or reinitiation) in prophylaxis/treatment for congestive heart failure within 3 months prior to start of study treatment.
  • Treatment with warfarin within 1 month prior to start of study treatment.
  • Prior therapy with ataluren.
  • Known hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients or excipients of the study drug (Litesse® UltraTM [refined polydextrose], polyethylene glycol 3350, Lutrol® micro F127 [poloxamer 407], mannitol 25C, crospovidone XL10, hydroxyethyl cellulose, vanilla, Cab-O-Sil® M5P [colloidal silica], magnesium stearate).
  • Exposure to another investigational drug within 2 months prior to start of study treatment.
  • History of major surgical procedure within 30 days prior to start of study treatment.
  • Ongoing immunosuppressive therapy (other than corticosteroids).
  • Ongoing participation in any other therapeutic clinical trial.
  • Expectation of major surgical procedure (for example, scoliosis surgery) during the 12-month treatment period of the study.
  • Requirement for daytime ventilator assistance.
  • Clinical symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Stage C or Stage D) or evidence on echocardiogram of clinically significant myopathy.
  • Prior or ongoing medical condition (for example, concomitant illness, psychiatric condition, behavioral disorder, alcoholism, drug abuse), medical history, physical findings, electrocardiogram findings, or laboratory abnormality that, in the investigator's opinion, could adversely affect the safety of the participant, makes it unlikely that the course of treatment or follow-up would be completed, or could impair the assessment of study results.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00592553


Locations
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Sponsors and Collaborators
PTC Therapeutics
Investigators
Layout table for investigator information
Study Director: Leone Atkinson, MD, PhD PTC Therapeutics
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
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Responsible Party: PTC Therapeutics
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00592553    
Other Study ID Numbers: PTC124-GD-007-DMD
2007-005478-29 ( EudraCT Number )
First Posted: January 14, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: April 7, 2020
Last Update Posted: April 7, 2020
Last Verified: March 2020
Individual Participant Data (IPD) Sharing Statement:
Plan to Share IPD: No
Keywords provided by PTC Therapeutics:
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Becker muscular dystrophy
Nonsense mutation
Premature stop codon
DMD/BMD
PTC124
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Muscular Dystrophies
Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne
Muscular Disorders, Atrophic
Muscular Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Genetic Diseases, Inborn
Genetic Diseases, X-Linked