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FFA-Induced Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
 
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00589888
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : January 10, 2008
Results First Posted : July 9, 2014
Last Update Posted : October 16, 2018
Sponsor:
Collaborator:
American Heart Association
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Guillermo Umpierrez, MD, Emory University

Brief Summary:
The study is a prospective open label study to examine the effects of oral and intravenous fat load on blood pressure, endothelial function, sympathetic activity, and oxidative stress in obese healthy subjects. Subjects will receive either 8-hour of intravenous or oral fat loads in either low or high doses or normal saline in random order. Blood samples are drawn and vitals are measured before and after the infusions. Endothelial function and plasma glucose and lipid levels are measured to study the effects.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Endothelial Dysfunction Hypertension Drug: Intralipid 20% @ 20cc/hour Drug: Intralipid 20%@ 40cc/hour Drug: Normal Saline Dietary Supplement: 32-gram oral fat load Dietary Supplement: 64-gram oral fat load Not Applicable

Detailed Description:

Insulin resistance has been implicated as the central mechanism in the development of several cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, lipid disorders, and coagulation disorders. Recent evidence suggests that increased levels of a circulation fat (free fatty acids or FFAs) are a leading candidate causing insulin resistance. Our preliminary studies in indicate that, in addition to insulin resistance, the infusion of Intralipid and heparin to increase FFAs resulted in a significant rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, impaired endothelial (vascular) function, and increased inflammatory markers in obese African Americans with and without diabetes. The effects of FFA on insulin action are well established; however, the blood pressure and vascular effects of FFAs infusion in obese subjects have not been fully investigated. We hypothesize that observed changes in blood pressure are the result of acute endothelial dysfunction, and/or increased activation of the autonomic nervous system. No previous studies have attempted to determine a dose response effect of increasing FFA on blood pressure. In addition, it is not know if increased FFAs by repeated oral fat load results in similar blood pressure than intravenous lipid infusion. Accordingly, we propose: 1) a systematic evaluation of the effects of increasing FFA levels on blood pressure and endothelial (vascular) function, and 2) determine the effects of comparable increases in FFA concentration via intravenous infusion of Intralipid or by repeated oral fat load on blood pressure, insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction in obese subjects.

A group of obese normotensive subjects will be admitted to the Grady Clinical Research Center or to the Outpatient Research Unit in the Grady Diabetes Clinic on five occasions. In four of these admissions, research subjects will receive an 8-hour intravenous infusion, in random order, of increasing Intralipid concentration (10 ml, 20 ml, 40 ml per hour) or normal saline (40 ml per hour). During the final admission, research subjects will receive an oral liquid fat diet every 2 hours for 8-hours. The effect of increased FFAs on blood pressure and endothelial (vascular) function via intravenous infusion and via oral fat load therapy will be assessed.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 13 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Other
Official Title: Free Fatty Acids-Induced Hypertension and Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Subjects
Study Start Date : August 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : April 2008
Actual Study Completion Date : August 2008

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine


Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: Intralipid 20%@ 20cc/hour
Intralipid 20% IV infusion at 20cc/hour
Drug: Intralipid 20% @ 20cc/hour
In this arm subjects received Intralipid 20% Intravenous IV continuous infusion at 20cc/hour for 8 hours. The 20% intralipid solution is a long-chain triglyceride emulsion composed of 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 26% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 19% saturated fatty acids. During the intralipid infusion studies, subjects remained fasting
Other Name: 20% i.v. fat emulsion

Active Comparator: Intralipid 20% @ 40cc/hour
Intralipid 20% IV infusion at 40cc/hour
Drug: Intralipid 20%@ 40cc/hour
In this arm subjects received Intralipid 20% IV continuous infusion at 40cc/hour for 8 hours. In this arm subjects will receive Intralipid 20% Intravenous IV continuous infusion at 20cc/hour for 8 hours. The 20% intralipid solution is a long-chain triglyceride emulsion composed of 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 26% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 19% saturated fatty acids. During the intralipid infusion studies, subjects remained fasting.
Other Name: 20% i.v. fat emulsion

Placebo Comparator: Normal Saline infusion @ 40cc/hour
Normal Saline continuous IV infusion at 40cc/hour for 8 hours
Drug: Normal Saline
In this arm subjects received 0.9% Normal Saline continuous IV infusion at 40/cc for 8 hours.
Other Name: 0.9% Sodium Chloride

Active Comparator: 32-gram oral fat load
32-gram oral fat load once
Dietary Supplement: 32-gram oral fat load
In this arm subjects received oral liquid fat load prepared by the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) at baseline and every 2 hours for 6 hours. Participants received fat with Free Fatty Acids (FFA) composed of 33% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 34% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 22% saturated fatty acids. The oral fat load in either low or high dose was given in four equally divided doses at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h.

Active Comparator: 64-gram oral fat load
64-gram oral fat load once
Dietary Supplement: 64-gram oral fat load
In this arm subjects received 60-gram oral fat load intake at baseline and every 2 hours for 6 hours prepared by the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC). Participants received fat with Free Fatty Acids (FFA) composed of 33% polyunsaturated fatty acids, 34% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 22% saturated fatty acids. The oral fat load in either low or high dose was given in four equally divided doses at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h.




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Systolic Blood Pressure to After Completing an 8-hour Normal Saline Infusion in Obese Normotensive Subjects. [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    To study the effects of high dose oral fat load on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in healthy obese subjects, subject's baseline SBP is compared to SBP after the infusion. Blood Pressure (BP) was measured with a manual cuff in triplicate on admission when patient was in Supine position. The Blood pressure was measured at admission and at end of the fat load. The BP from the admission are compared to BP after the fat load. A normal systolic blood pressure is lower than 120 mmHg; elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg. A level above 140 mmHg is considered hypertension.

  2. Change in Systolic Blood Pressure From Baseline to After Completing an 8-hour 20% Intralipid @ 20cc/hr Infusion in Obese Normotensive Subjects. [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    To study the effects of low dose intravenous (IV) fat infusion on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in healthy obese subjects, subject's baseline SBP is compared to SBP after the infusion. Blood Pressure (BP) was measured with a manual cuff in triplicate on admission when patient was in Supine position. The Blood pressure was measured at admission and at every 2 hours till the end of infusion. The BP from the admission are compared to BP after the infusion.A normal systolic blood pressure is lower than 120 mmHg; elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg. A level above 140 mmHg is considered hypertension.

  3. Changes in Systolic Blood Pressure From Baseline to After Completing an 8-hour 20% Intralipid @ 40cc/hr Infusion in Obese Normotensive Subjects [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    To study the effects of high dose intravenous (IV) fat infusion on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in healthy obese subjects, subject's baseline SBP is compared to SBP after the infusion. Blood Pressure (BP) was measured with a manual cuff in triplicate on admission when patient was in Supine position. The Blood pressure was measured at admission and at every 2 hours till the end of infusion. The BP from the admission are compared to BP after the infusion. A normal systolic blood pressure is lower than 120 mmHg; elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg. A level above 140 mmHg is considered hypertension.

  4. Change in Systolic Blood Pressure From Baseline to After Completing an Oral 32-gram Fat Load in Obese Normotensive Subjects. [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    To study the effects of oral low dose fat load on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in healthy obese subjects, subject's baseline SBP is compared to SBP after the infusion. Blood Pressure (BP) was measured with a manual cuff in triplicate on admission when patient was in Supine position.The Blood pressure was measured at admission and at end of the fat load. The BP from the admission are compared to BP after the fat load. A normal systolic blood pressure is lower than 120 mmHg; elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg. A level above 140 mmHg is considered hypertension.

  5. Changes in Systolic Blood Pressure From Baseline to After Completing an Oral 64-gram Fat Load in Obese Normotensive Subjects [ Time Frame: at the end of the 8 hours ]
    To study the effects of high dose oral fat load on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in healthy obese subjects, subject's baseline SBP is compared to SBP after the infusion. Blood Pressure (BP) was measured with a manual cuff in triplicate on admission when patient was in Supine position. The Blood pressure was measured at admission and at end of the fat load. The BP from the admission are compared to BP after the fat load. A normal systolic blood pressure is lower than 120 mmHg; elevated blood pressure if the systolic reading is 120-129 mmHg. A level above 140 mmHg is considered hypertension.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Change in Flow-mediated Dilation (FMD) of Endothelium-dependent Brachial Artery From Baseline to After Completing a Specific Intervention in Obese Normotensive Subjects. [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    Endothelium-dependent brachial artery dilatation was assessed as a measurement of endothelial function using established methodology. Briefly, ultrasound images of the brachial artery were obtained at baseline under standardized conditions and 60 s after induction of reactive hyperemia by 5-min cuff occlusion of the forearm. Image landmarks as well as surface markers were utilized to ensure anatomic consistency between serial imaging studies. All images were digitized online, and arterial diameters were measured with customized software by individuals blinded to the clinical and laboratory status of the subjects. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was expressed as the percentage increase in diameter from baseline. It is measured in percentage.

  2. Change in Blood Glucose Levels From Baseline to 6-8 Hours After Intervention Among Obese Healthy Subjects [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    The blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans. Many factors affect a person's blood sugar level. The body's homeostatic mechanism of blood sugar regulation (known as glucose homeostasis), when operating normally, restores the blood sugar level to a narrow range of about 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L (79 to 110 mg/dL) (as measured by a fasting blood glucose test). The study aims to study the effects of these interventions on blood glucose levels among obese healthy subjects.

  3. Change in C-peptide Concentration Levels From Baseline to After Specific Intervention Among the Healthy Obese Subjects [ Time Frame: baseline and after 8 hours after admission ]
    C-peptide is a peptide composed of 31 amino acids. It is released from the pancreatic beta-cells during cleavage of insulin from proinsulin. It is mainly excreted by the kidney, and its half-life is 3-4 times longer than that of insulin. The reference range of C-peptide is 0. 8-3 ng/ml. The C-peptide test is a tool to monitor and treat diabetes. It shows how well your body makes insulin, which moves sugar (or "glucose") from your blood into your cells.

  4. Change in Blood Insulin Levels From Baseline to After Intervention Among the Normal Obese Subjects [ Time Frame: Baseline and at the end of the 8-hours ]
    Insulin is an anabolic hormone that promotes glucose uptake, glycogenesis, lipogenesis, and protein synthesis of skeletal muscle and fat tissue through the tyrosine kinase receptor pathway. In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon and other catabolic hormones like epinephrine, glucocorticoid, and growth hormone. Normal fasting insulin levels is < 25 milli-International unit/litre



Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Males or females between the ages of 18 and 65 years.
  • Definition: obese = BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2
  • Blood pressure < 140/80 mm Hg and no prior history of hypertension

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of hypertension or previous history of antihypertensive drug therapy.
  • Current tobacco use
  • Fasting triglyceride levels > 250 mg/dL during the stabilization period.
  • Liver disease (ALT 2.5x > upper limit of normal), or other significant medical or surgical illness, including myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, liver failure, and infectious processes.
  • Serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL for males, or ≥ 1.4 mg/dL for females.
  • History of drug or alcohol abuse within the last 5 years.
  • Mental condition rendering the subject unable to understand the nature, scope, and possible consequences of the study.
  • Female subjects are pregnant or breast feeding at time of enrollment into the study.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00589888


Locations
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United States, Georgia
Grady Memorial Hospital
Atlanta, Georgia, United States, 30303
Sponsors and Collaborators
Emory University
American Heart Association
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Guillermo Umpierrez, MD Emory University SOM/GCRC
Publications of Results:
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Responsible Party: Guillermo Umpierrez, MD, Professor of Medicine, Emory University
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00589888    
Other Study ID Numbers: IRB00041116
IRB 668-2006 ( Other Identifier: Other )
First Posted: January 10, 2008    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: July 9, 2014
Last Update Posted: October 16, 2018
Last Verified: September 2018
Keywords provided by Guillermo Umpierrez, MD, Emory University:
hypertension
metabolic syndrome
vascular reactivity
Elevated blood pressure
lipid toxicity
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Hypertension
Vascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Diseases
Soybean oil, phospholipid emulsion
Fat Emulsions, Intravenous
Parenteral Nutrition Solutions
Pharmaceutical Solutions