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Prostate Radiation Therapy or Short-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy and Pelvic Lymph Node Radiation Therapy With or Without Prostate Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With a Rising Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) After Surgery for Prostate Cancer

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ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00567580
Recruitment Status : Active, not recruiting
First Posted : December 5, 2007
Results First Posted : March 2, 2021
Last Update Posted : March 30, 2021
Sponsor:
Collaborators:
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Cancer and Leukemia Group B
NRG Oncology
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Androgens can cause the growth of prostate cancer cells. Antihormone therapy, such as flutamide, bicalutamide, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist, may lessen the amount of androgens made by the body. It is not yet known which regimen of radiation therapy with or without androgen-deprivation therapy is more effective for prostate cancer.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying prostate radiation therapy to see how well it works compared with short-term androgen deprivation therapy given together with pelvic lymph node radiation therapy with or without prostate radiation therapy in treating patients with a rising PSA after surgery for prostate cancer.


Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Prostate Cancer Radiation: PBRT Radiation: PLNRT Drug: AA Drug: LHRH agonist Phase 3

Detailed Description:

OBJECTIVES:

Primary

  • To determine whether the addition of short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) to prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT) improves freedom from progression (FFP) (i.e., maintenance of a prostate-specific antigen [PSA] less than the nadir+2 ng/mL, absence of clinical failure, and absence of death from any cause) for 5 years, over that of PBRT alone in men treated with salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy.
  • To determine whether STAD, pelvic lymph node radiotherapy (PLNRT), and PBRT improves FFP over that of STAD+PBRT and PBRT alone in men treated with salvage radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy.

Secondary

  • To compare secondary biochemical failure, the development of hormone-refractory disease , distant metastasis, cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality at five years.
  • To compare acute and late morbidity based on Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Effects (CTCAE), v. 3.0.
  • To measure the expression of cell kinetic, apoptotic pathway, and angiogenesis-related genes in archival diagnostic tissue to better define the risk of FFP, distant failure, cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality after salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer, independently of conventional clinical parameters now used.
  • To quantify blood product-based proteomic and genomic (single nucleotide polymorphisms) patterns and urine-based genomic patterns before and at different times after treatment to better define the risk of FFP, distant failure, cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality after salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer, independently of conventional clinical parameters now used.
  • To assess the degree, duration, and significant differences of disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) decrements among treatment arms.
  • To assess whether mood is improved and depression is decreased with the more aggressive therapy if it improves FFP.
  • To collect paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, serum, plasma, urine, and buffy coat cells for future translational research analyses.

Tertiary

  • To assess whether an incremental gain in FFP and survival with more aggressive therapy outweighs decrements in the primary generic domains of HRQOL (i.e., mobility, self care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression).
  • To evaluate the cost-utility of the treatment arm demonstrating the most significant benefit (in terms of the primary outcome) in comparison with other widely accepted cancer and non-cancer therapies.
  • To assess associations between serum levels of beta-amyloid and measures of cognition and mood and depression.
  • An exploratory aim is to assess the relationship(s) between the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA SI) and urinary morbidity using the CTCAE v. 3.0 grading system.

OUTLINE: Patients are stratified according to seminal vesicle involvement (yes vs no), prostatectomy Gleason score (≤ 7 vs 8-9), pre-radiotherapy PSA (≥ 0.1 and ≤ 1.0 ng/mL vs > 1.0 and < 2.0 ng/mL), and pathology stage (pT2 and margin negative vs all others). Patients are randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms.

Follow-up occurs 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of radiation therapy, then every 6 months for 6 years, and then annually thereafter.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1792 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase III Trial of Short Term Androgen Deprivation With Pelvic Lymph Node or Prostate Bed Only Radiotherapy (SPPORT) in Prostate Cancer Patients With a Rising PSA After Radical Prostatectomy
Study Start Date : February 2008
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 12, 2018

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Prostate Cancer

Arm Intervention/treatment
Active Comparator: PBRT Alone
Prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT) begins within 6 weeks (+/- 2 weeks) after registration.
Radiation: PBRT
1.8 Gy per fraction once daily, 5 days a week totaling 64.8-70.2 Gy. 3D-CRT or IMRT required.
Other Names:
  • Prostate bed radiotherapy
  • Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT)
  • Intensity modulated RT (IMRT)

Experimental: PBRT + STAD
Prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT) and short term androgen deprivation therapy (STAD) consisting of antiandrogen (AA) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy begins within 6 weeks (+/- 2 weeks) after registration. STAD starts first, 2 months (+/- 2 weeks) before radiotherapy (RT), and lasts for 4-6 months. LHRH can last 4-6 months. AA starts at the same time as LHRH (or up to 2 weeks prior ), lasts approximately 4 months, and should end on the last day of RT (+/- 2 weeks).
Radiation: PBRT
1.8 Gy per fraction once daily, 5 days a week totaling 64.8-70.2 Gy. 3D-CRT or IMRT required.
Other Names:
  • Prostate bed radiotherapy
  • Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT)
  • Intensity modulated RT (IMRT)

Drug: AA
Antiandrogen (AA) therapy can be either 250 mg flutamide by mouth three times a day or 50 mg bicalutamide by mouth once a day.
Other Names:
  • flutamide
  • bicalutamide

Drug: LHRH agonist
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist can be any analog approved by the FDA (or by Health Canada for Canadian institutions) and may be given in any possible combination such that the total LHRH treatment time is 4-6 months. LHRH analogs are administered with a variety of techniques, including subcutaneous insertion of a solid plug in the abdominal wall, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection.
Other Names:
  • leuprolide
  • goserelin
  • buserelin
  • triptorelin

Experimental: PLNRT + PBRT + STADT
Pelvic lymph node radiotherapy (PLNRT), prostate bed radiotherapy (PBRT), and short term androgen deprivation therapy (STAD) consisting of antiandrogen (AA) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist therapy begins within 6 weeks (+/- 2 weeks) after registration. STAD starts first, 2 months (+/- 2 weeks) before RT, and lasts for 4-6 months. LHRH can last 4-6 months. AA starts at the same time as LHRH (or up to 2 weeks prior ), lasts approximately 4 months, and should end on the last day of RT (+/- 2 weeks).
Radiation: PBRT
1.8 Gy per fraction once daily, 5 days a week totaling 64.8-70.2 Gy. 3D-CRT or IMRT required.
Other Names:
  • Prostate bed radiotherapy
  • Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D-CRT)
  • Intensity modulated RT (IMRT)

Radiation: PLNRT
1.8 Gy per fraction once daily, 5 days a week, totaling 45 Gy. 3D-CRT or IMRT required.
Other Name: Pelvic lymph node radiotherapy

Drug: AA
Antiandrogen (AA) therapy can be either 250 mg flutamide by mouth three times a day or 50 mg bicalutamide by mouth once a day.
Other Names:
  • flutamide
  • bicalutamide

Drug: LHRH agonist
Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist can be any analog approved by the FDA (or by Health Canada for Canadian institutions) and may be given in any possible combination such that the total LHRH treatment time is 4-6 months. LHRH analogs are administered with a variety of techniques, including subcutaneous insertion of a solid plug in the abdominal wall, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection.
Other Names:
  • leuprolide
  • goserelin
  • buserelin
  • triptorelin




Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants Free From Progression (FFP) at 5 Years [ Time Frame: From randomization to five years. ]
    Progression is defined as the first occurrence of the following events: biochemical failure by the Phoenix definition (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≥ 2 ng/ml over the nadir PSA), clinical failure (local, regional or distant), or death from any cause. The initiation of second salvage therapy before progression was a protocol violation and resulted in censoring. Progression time is defined as time from randomization to the date of progression, second salvage therapy (censored), or last known follow-up (censored). Freedom from progression rates are estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but results were reported early. See Limitations and Caveats section.


Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Percentage of Participants With Secondary Biochemical Failure (Alternative Biochemical Failure) [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Secondary biochemical (failure) is defined as either of two occurrences: 1. For detectable post-baseline PSA values (≥ 0.1), the first occurrence of a PSA value that is both ≥ 0.4 and a second rise above nadir; 2.The start of second salvage therapy. Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of failure, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but results were reported early. See Limitations and Caveats section.

  2. Percentage of Participants Free From Hormone-refractory Disease (Castrate-resistant Disease) [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Hormone-refractory disease (failure) is defined as three rises in PSA after the start of second salvage androgen deprivation therapy. Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of failure, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but the data monitoring committee decided to release results after the third interim analysis.

  3. Percentage of Participants With Local Failure [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Local failure is defined as first occurrence of local clinical progression. Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of failure, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but the data monitoring committee decided to release results after the third interim analysis.

  4. Percentage of Participants With Distant Metastasis [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Distant metastasis (failure) is defined as the occurrence of distant metastasis determined by imaging. Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of failure, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but the data monitoring committee decided to release results after the third interim analysis.

  5. Percentage of Participants Who Died Due to Prostate Cancer (Cause-specific Mortality) [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Cause-specific mortality (failure) is defined as death due to prostate cancer or complications of protocol treatment (centrally reviewed), or death following disease progression (clinical or biochemical) in the absence of or after the initiation of any salvage therapy. [Biochemical progression is indicated by any rise in PSA.] Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of failure, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but the data monitoring committee decided to release results after the third interim analysis.

  6. Percentage of Participants Alive (Overall Mortality) [ Time Frame: From randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Survival time is defined as time from randomization to the date of death from any cause or last known follow-up (censored). Survival rates are estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Pairwise comparisons of the overall distributions of failure times are reported in statistical analysis section, with five-year rates reported here. The study was designed for the final analysis to occur after all participants had been on study for at least 5 years, but the data monitoring committee decided to release results after the third interim analysis.

  7. Percentage of Participants Experiencing Grade 2+ and 3+ Adverse Events ≤ 90 Days of the Completion of Radiotherapy (RT) [ Time Frame: From randomization to 90 days after completion of radiotherapy (approximately 7-8 weeks). ]
    Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) grades adverse event severity from 1=mild to 5=death. Summary data is provided in this outcome measure; see Adverse Events Module for specific adverse event data. Pairwise comparisons of Arm 2 vs Arm 1 and Arm 3 vs. Arm 2 are reported in the statistical analysis.

  8. Percentage of Participants Experiencing Late Grade 2+ and 3+ Adverse Events > 90 Days From the Completion of Radiotherapy (RT) [ Time Frame: AE: from 91 days after completion of RT (approximately 7-8 weeks) to last follow-up. Vital status: from randomization to last follow-up. Maximum follow-up at time of analysis was 10.5 years. ]
    Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 3.0) grades adverse event severity from 1=mild to 5=death. Late adverse events (AE) are defined as occurring > 90 days from the completion of RT. Failure time is defined as time from randomization to the date of first late grade 2 or grade 3 adverse event, death (competing risk), or last known follow-up (censored). Failure rates for data summary are estimated using the cumulative incidence method, with 5-year rates provided here. Pairwise comparisons of the distributions of failure times between Arm 2 and Arm 1 and between Arm 3 and Arm 2, reported in the statistical analysis section, use cause-specific hazard rates for which deaths are censored.

  9. Comparison of Disease-specific Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) Change by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Revised (HVLT-R), Trail Making Test A & B, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) [ Time Frame: From the 6th week of radiation therapy to 5 years post radiation therapy. ]
  10. Assessment of Mood and Depression Change Using QOL Measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) [ Time Frame: From the 6th week of radiation therapy to 5 years post radiation therapy. ]
  11. Assessment and Comparison of Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) and Quality Adjusted FFP Year (QAFFPY) [ Time Frame: From the 6th week of radiation therapy to 5 years post radiation therapy. ]
  12. Evaluation and Comparison of the Cost-utility Using EuroQoL - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) [ Time Frame: From the 6th week of radiation therapy to 5 years post radiation therapy. ]
  13. Prognostic Value of Genomic and Proteomic Markers for the Primary and Secondary Clinical Endpoints [ Time Frame: Date of randomization to timepoint of the respective primary or secondary endpoint. ]
  14. Assessment of the Relationship(s) Between the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA SI) and Urinary Morbidity (Adverse Event Terms: Urinary Frequency/Urgency) Using the CTCAE v. 3.0 Grading System [ Time Frame: From the 6th week of radiation therapy to 5 years post radiation therapy. ]


Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Layout table for eligibility information
Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated primarily with radical prostatectomy, pathologically proven to be lymph node negative by pelvic lymphadenectomy (N0) or lymph node status pathologically unknown (undissected pelvic lymph nodes [Nx]), i.e. lymph node dissection is not required;

    • Any type of radical prostatectomy will be permitted, including retropubic, perineal, laparoscopic or robotically assisted. There is no time limit for the date of radical prostatectomy.

  2. A post-radical prostatectomy entry prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of ≥ 0.1 and < 2.0 ng/mL at least 6 weeks (45 days) after prostatectomy and within 30 days of registration;
  3. One of the following pathologic classifications:

    • T3N0/Nx disease with or without a positive prostatectomy surgical margin; or
    • T2N0/Nx disease with or without a positive prostatectomy surgical margin;
  4. Prostatectomy Gleason score of 9 or less;
  5. Zubrod Performance Status of 0-1;
  6. Age ≥ 18;
  7. No distant metastases, based upon the following minimum diagnostic workup:

    • History/physical examination (including digital rectal exam) within 8 weeks (60 days) prior to registration;
    • A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the pelvis (with contrast if renal function is acceptable; a noncontrast CT is permitted if the patient is not a candidate for contrast) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvis within 120 days prior to registration;
    • Bone scan within 120 days prior to registration; if the bone scan is suspicious, a plain x-ray and/or MRI must be obtained to rule out metastasis.
  8. Adequate bone marrow function, within 90 days prior to registration, defined as follows:

    • Platelets ≥ 100,000 cells/mm^3 based upon compete blood count (CBC);
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 10.0 g/dl based upon CBC (Note: The use of transfusion or other intervention to achieve Hgb ≥ 10.0 g/dl is recommended).
  9. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) < 2 x the upper limit of normal within 90 days prior to registration;
  10. Serum total testosterone must be ≥ 40% of the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the assay used (testosterone ÷ LLN must be ≥ 0.40) within 90 days prior to registration (Note: Patients who have had a unilateral orchiectomy are eligible as long as this requirement is met);
  11. Patients must sign a study-specific informed consent prior to study entry.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. A palpable prostatic fossa abnormality/mass suggestive of recurrence, unless shown by biopsy under ultrasound guidance not to contain cancer;
  2. N1 patients are ineligible, as are those with pelvic lymph node enlargement ≥ 1.5 cm in greatest dimension by CT scan or MRI of the pelvis, unless the enlarged lymph node is sampled and is negative;
  3. Androgen deprivation therapy started prior to prostatectomy for > 6 months (180 days) duration. Note: The use of finasteride or dutasteride (±tamsulosin) for longer periods prior to prostatectomy is acceptable;
  4. Androgen deprivation therapy started after prostatectomy and prior to registration (Note: The use of finasteride or dutasteride (±tamsulosin) after prostatectomy is not acceptable - must be stopped within 3 months after prostatectomy. Androgen deprivation therapy must be stopped within 3 months after prostatectomy);
  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before or after prostatectomy;
  6. Prior chemotherapy for any other disease site if given within 5 years prior to registration;
  7. Prior cryosurgery or brachytherapy of the prostate; prostatectomy should be the primary treatment and not a salvage procedure;
  8. Prior pelvic radiotherapy;
  9. Prior invasive malignancy (except non-melanomatous skin cancer) or superficial bladder cancer unless disease free for a minimum of 5 years [for example, carcinoma in situ of the oral cavity is permissible];
  10. Severe, active co-morbidity, defined as follows:

    • History of inflammatory bowel disease;
    • History of hepatitis B or C; Blood tests are not required to determine if the patient has had hepatitis B or C, unless the patient reports a history of hepatitis.
    • Unstable angina and/or congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization within the last 6 months;
    • Transmural myocardial infarction within the last 6 months;
    • Acute bacterial or fungal infection requiring intravenous antibiotics at the time of registration;
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbation or other respiratory illness requiring hospitalization or precluding study therapy at the time of registration;
    • Hepatic insufficiency resulting in clinical jaundice and/or coagulation defects; AST or ALT are required; note, however, that laboratory tests for coagulation parameters are not required for entry into this protocol.
    • Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) based upon current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition; Note, however, that human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) testing is not required for entry into this protocol. The need to exclude patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from this protocol is necessary because the treatments involved in this protocol may result in increased toxicity and immunosuppression.
  11. Prior allergic reaction to the study drug(s) involved in this protocol.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00567580


Locations
Show Show 460 study locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Cancer and Leukemia Group B
NRG Oncology
Investigators
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Principal Investigator: Alan Pollack, MD, PhD University of Miami
  Study Documents (Full-Text)

Documents provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:
Informed Consent Form  [PDF] March 1, 2019

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Responsible Party: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00567580    
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT01312974
Other Study ID Numbers: RTOG-0534
CDR0000577574
NCI-2009-00733 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
First Posted: December 5, 2007    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: March 2, 2021
Last Update Posted: March 30, 2021
Last Verified: March 2021
Keywords provided by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group:
stage IIB prostate cancer
stage IIA prostate cancer
stage III prostate cancer
adenocarcinoma of the prostate
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Neoplasms
Prostatic Diseases
Leuprolide
Goserelin
Triptorelin Pamoate
Flutamide
Bicalutamide
Buserelin
Fertility Agents, Female
Fertility Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Androgen Antagonists
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Luteolytic Agents
Contraceptive Agents, Female
Contraceptive Agents