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Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation Therapy in Treating Patients Who Have Undergone Surgery for Prostate Cancer (RADICALS)

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified July 2009 by National Cancer Institute (NCI).
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
Information provided by:
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Identifier:
First received: October 5, 2007
Last updated: February 19, 2012
Last verified: July 2009

RATIONALE: Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Androgens can cause the growth of prostate cancer cells. Androgen deprivation therapy, such as goserelin, leuprolide, or bicalutamide, may lessen the amount of androgens made by the body. Giving radiation therapy together with androgen deprivation therapy may kill more prostate cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well giving radiation therapy together with androgen deprivation therapy works in treating patients who have undergone surgery for prostate cancer.

Condition Intervention Phase
Gastrointestinal Complications Prostate Cancer Sexual Dysfunction Urinary Complications Drug: bicalutamide Drug: goserelin acetate Drug: leuprolide acetate Procedure: adjuvant therapy Procedure: quality-of-life assessment Radiation: radiation therapy Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: RADICALS - Radiotherapy and Androgen Deprivation In Combination After Local Surgery

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Disease-specific survival (i.e., death due to prostate cancer)

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Freedom from treatment failure
  • Clinical progression-free survival
  • Overall survival
  • Non-protocol hormone therapy
  • Treatment toxicity
  • Patient reported outcomes

Estimated Enrollment: 4000
Study Start Date: October 2007
Detailed Description:


  • Assess the timing of radiotherapy and the use of hormone therapy in conjunction with post-operative radiotherapy.
  • Determine the impact of radiotherapy on general quality of life, sexual function, urinary function, and bowel function.
  • Determine the impact of duration of hormone therapy on general quality of life and sexual function.

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study. Patients requiring immediate radiotherapy (RT) are assigned to arm I; patients do not require immediate RT are assigned to arm II. Patients for whom the need of immediate post-operative radiotherapy are uncertain undergo radiotherapy timing randomization within 3 months after surgery and are randomized to 1 of 2 radiotherapy arms.

  • Arm I (immediate RT): Within 2 months after randomization, patients undergo radiotherapy to the prostate bed once a day, 5 days a week, for 4 (20 fractions total) or 6.5 weeks (33 fractions total). They may also undergo radiotherapy to the pelvic lymph nodes once a day, 5 days a week, for 4.5 weeks (23 fractions total) at the investigator's discretion.
  • Arm II (early salvage RT in case of PSA failure): Within 2 months of confirmation of post-operative biochemical failure, patients undergo radiotherapy as in arm I.

Patients undergoing immediate RT and patients who eventually need early salvage RT undergo hormone therapy duration randomization before the administration of post-operative radiotherapy. Patients are randomized to 1 of 3 hormone therapy arms.

  • Arm III (no hormone therapy): Patients do not receive hormone therapy. They receive post-operative RT alone as described above in arm I or II.
  • Arm IV (RT and short-term hormone therapy): Beginning approximately 2 months prior to the start of RT, patients receive hormone therapy for 6 months. Hormone therapy* may comprise of LHRH agonist (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue [GnRHa] [e.g., goserelin or leuprolide acetate]) or bicalutamide daily.
  • Arm V (RT and long-term hormone therapy): Beginning approximately 2 months prior to the start of RT, patients receive hormone therapy for 24 months. Hormone therapy* may comprise of LHRH agonist (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogue [GnRHa] [e.g., goserelin or leuprolide acetate]) or bicalutamide daily.

NOTE: *For Canadian patients, hormonal therapy will consist of LHRH analog (leuprolide acetate) therapy only.

Treatment continues in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Quality of life is assessed using self-administered questionnaires at baseline and 1, 5, and 10 years after randomization. Health economics information is also collected via patient-administered questionnaires (EQ-5D) at baseline and at 1, 5 and 10 years after randomization.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed for 7 years.


Ages Eligible for Study:   Child, Adult, Senior
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


Inclusion criteria:

  • Diagnosis of nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate
  • Must have undergone radical prostatectomy
  • Post-operative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 0.4 ng/mL
  • No post-operative biochemical failure, defined as EITHER two consecutive rises in PSA and final PSA > 0.1 ng/mL OR three consecutive rises in PSA (for patients undergoing hormone therapy duration randomization)

Exclusion criteria:

  • Known distant metastases from prostate cancer
  • PSA > 5 ng/mL at the time of hormone randomization (for patients undergoing hormone therapy duration randomization)


  • No other active malignancy likely to interfere with protocol treatment or follow-up


Inclusion criteria:

  • See Disease Characteristics
  • Co-enrollment to other trials is permitted, providing this does not interfere with the outcome measures
  • 5-α reductase inhibitors, soya, selenium, and vitamin E are acceptable non-trial therapies

Exclusion criteria:

  • Prior hormone therapy
  • Bilateral orchidectomy
  • Prior pelvic radiotherapy
  • Neoadjuvant treatment
  • Other concurrent therapies for prostate cancer (e.g., estrogens or cytotoxic chemotherapy) prior to disease progression
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00541047

  Show 58 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Medical Research Council
Study Chair: Christopher Parker, MD Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust
  More Information Identifier: NCT00541047     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000571528
Study First Received: October 5, 2007
Last Updated: February 19, 2012

Keywords provided by National Cancer Institute (NCI):
sexual dysfunction
urinary complications
gastrointestinal complications
adenocarcinoma of the prostate
stage I prostate cancer
stage IIB prostate cancer
stage IIA prostate cancer
stage III prostate cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Fertility Agents, Female
Fertility Agents
Reproductive Control Agents
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Androgen Antagonists
Hormone Antagonists processed this record on September 21, 2017