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Calcitriol in Combination With Ketoconazole and Therapeutic Hydrocortisone in Treating Patients With Prostate Cancer

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00536991
Recruitment Status : Terminated (difficult to recruit)
First Posted : September 28, 2007
Results First Posted : May 15, 2017
Last Update Posted : June 14, 2017
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Roswell Park Cancer Institute

Brief Summary:
This phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of calcitriol when given in combination with ketoconazole and therapeutic hydrocortisone and to see how well it works in treating patients with prostate cancer. Calcitriol may help prostate cancer cells become more like normal cells and grow and spread more slowly. Ketoconazole and therapeutic hydrocortisone may help calcitriol work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drug. Giving calcitriol together with ketoconazole and therapeutic hydrocortisone may be a better treatment for prostate cancer.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Prostate Adenocarcinoma Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma Stage III Prostate Cancer Stage IV Prostate Cancer Dietary Supplement: Calcitriol Drug: Ketoconazole Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis Other: Pharmacological Study Drug: Therapeutic Hydrocortisone Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:


I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral calcitriol daily x 3 consecutive days a week in combination with oral ketoconazole (400 mg thrice daily [TID]) + oral hydrocortisone (20 mg AM, 10 mg PM) in men with androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC). (Phase I) II. To estimate the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate. (Phase II)


I. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the phase II dose of oral calcitriol with and without ketoconazole (400 mg TID).

II. Describe any objective tumor responses to the combination of oral calcitriol and ketoconazole and hydrocortisone among patients with measurable disease using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria.

III. Determine toxicities and tolerability of oral calcitriol combination with daily oral ketoconazole and hydrocortisone.

OUTLINE: This is a phase I, dose-escalation study of calcitriol followed by a phase II study.

PHASE I: Patients receive calcitriol orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-3, 8-10, 15-17, and 22-24. Patients also receive ketoconazole PO TID on days 1-24 and therapeutic hydrocortisone PO twice daily (BID) on days -1 to 24. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

PHASE II: Patients receive calcitriol and therapeutic hydrocortisone as in phase I. Patients also receive ketoconazole PO TID on days 4-24. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 30 days.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 51 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Study of Oral Calcitriol in Combination With Ketoconazole in Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer
Study Start Date : October 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : October 2016
Actual Study Completion Date : October 2016

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Treatment (calcitriol, ketoconazole, hydrocortisone)

PHASE I: Patients receive calcitriol PO QD on days 1-3, 8-10, 15-17, and 22-24. Patients also receive ketoconazole PO TID on days 1-24 and therapeutic hydrocortisone PO BID on days -1 to 24. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

PHASE II: Patients receive calcitriol and therapeutic hydrocortisone as in phase I. Patients also receive ketoconazole PO TID on days 4-24. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

Dietary Supplement: Calcitriol
Given PO
Other Names:
  • 1,25(OH)2-D3
  • 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol
  • Calcijex
  • Rocaltrol

Drug: Ketoconazole
Given PO
Other Names:
  • Fungarest
  • Fungoral
  • Ketoderm
  • Ketoisdin
  • Nizoral
  • Orifungal M
  • Panfungol
  • R-41400
  • Xolegel

Other: Laboratory Biomarker Analysis
Correlative studies

Other: Pharmacological Study
Correlative studies

Drug: Therapeutic Hydrocortisone
Given PO
Other Names:
  • Aeroseb-HC
  • Barseb HC
  • Barseb-HC
  • Cetacort
  • Cort-Dome
  • Cortef
  • Cortenema
  • Cortifan
  • Cortisol
  • Cortispray
  • Cortril
  • Dermacort
  • Domolene
  • Eldecort
  • Hautosone
  • Heb-Cort
  • Hydrocortone
  • Hytone
  • Komed-HC
  • Nutracort
  • Proctocort
  • Rectoid

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Determine the Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) [ Time Frame: up to 11 years ]
    Determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral calcitriol daily x 3 consecutive days a week in combination with oral ketoconazole (400 mg thrice daily [TID]) + oral hydrocortisone (20 mg AM, 10 mg PM)

  2. PSA Response Rate [ Time Frame: Up to 11 years ]
    Patients will be considered evaluable for PSA response if they have at least two post-baseline PSA measurements at least 4 weeks apart, or if they have other evidence of disease progression. A PSA response will be considered a PSA decline of at least 50% must be confirmed by a second PSA value four or more weeks later. The reference PSA for these declines should be a PSA measured within 2 weeks prior to the initiation of therapy.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Incidence of Toxicity Graded According to the National Cancer Institute CTC Version 3.0 [ Time Frame: Up to 11 years ]
    Count of participants with serious adverse event. Please refer to the adverse event reporting for more detail.

  2. Objective Tumor Response, Assessed by RECIST [ Time Frame: Up to 11 years ]
    Judged by monthly physical exam and radiographic evaluation. Patients will be considered evaluable for tumor response if they have at least two post-baseline tumor assessments at least 4 weeks apart, received study medication for 8 weeks or if they have evidence of disease progression. Per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors Criteria (RECIST v1.0) for target lesions and assessed by MRI: Complete Response (CR), Disappearance of all target lesions; Partial Response (PR), >=30% decrease in the sum of the longest diameter of target lesions; Overall Response (OR) = CR + PR.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma consistent clinically with androgen independent prostate cancer
  • Measurable disease with elevated PSA or evaluable disease (PSA elevation will constitute evaluable disease)
  • =< 2 regimens of cytotoxic chemotherapy prior to study entry; retinoids, vitamin D analogues, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists or antagonists, antiandrogens, progestational agents, estrogens, prostate cancer (PC)-SPES, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-analogues, vaccines, cytokines will not be considered "cytotoxics"; patients who have previously received ketoconazole + glucocorticoids will be eligible for this trial
  • Patients who have received antiandrogens or progestational agents as therapy for prostate cancer must discontinue therapy and demonstrate a rising PSA >= 28 days following discontinuation (antiandrogen withdrawal- AAW) (>= 42 days for bicalutamide or nilutamide); patients who receive megestrol acetate as therapy for "hot flashes" at a dose of =< 40 mg per day may continue this therapy during this trial; the dose of the megestrol acetate should not be changed during protocol treatment; patients undergoing androgen deprivation using LHRH analogues must continue such agents or undergo orchiectomy to maintain castrate levels of testosterone
  • Patients must have prostate cancer that is advanced or recurrent and for which standard curative or reliable palliative therapies do not exist or are no longer effective
  • Patients should not have received any chemotherapy or investigational agents for at least 4 weeks before entering the study (6 weeks for nitrosoureas or mitomycin C)
  • Eastern Clinical Oncology Group performance status =< 2 (Karnofsky >= 60%)
  • Life expectancy > 3 months
  • Leukocytes: >= 3,000/ul
  • Hemoglobin: >= 8 g/dl
  • Absolute neutrophil count (ANC): >= 1,500/ul
  • Platelets: >= 75,000/ul
  • Total bilirubin: within normal institutional limit
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT): =< 2.5 x institutional upper limit of normal
  • Creatine: =< 2 mg/dL
  • Calcium: not above normal institutional limit
  • Patients should be able to receive oral medications
  • Patients with brain metastases which are stable and have been treated with surgery or irradiation will be eligible for this trial
  • Men must agree to use adequate contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control; abstinence) prior to study entry and for the duration of study participation; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while her partner is participating in this study, she should inform the treating physician immediately
  • Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
  • PHASE II - GROUP B: Progressive disease must have occurred on abiraterone within the prior 12 months and patient has not received treatment with enzalutamide
  • Men of all ethnic groups are eligible for this trial; efforts will be made to include minority groups and all representative ethnicities and races in the community serviced by Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Known severe hypersensitivity to ketoconazole, calcitriol or any of the excipients of these products
  • History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to calcitriol, ketoconazole, or other agents used in study
  • Evidence of any other significant clinical disorder or laboratory finding that makes it undesirable for the patient to participate in the trial
  • History of kidney, ureteral, or bladder stones within the last 5 years
  • Heart failure or significant heart disease including significant arrhythmias, myocardial infarction within the last 3 months, unstable angina, documented ejection fraction < 30%, or current digoxin therapy
  • Thiazide therapy within 7 days from entering the study
  • Requirement for concurrent systemic glucocorticoid therapy at greater than physiologic replacement doses
  • Unwillingness to stop calcium supplementation
  • As judged by the investigator, any evidence of severe or uncontrolled systemic disease (e.g., unstable or uncompensated respiratory, cardiac, hepatic, or renal disease) or intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would lit compliance with study requirements
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy are excluded from the study
  • Concomitant use of phenytoin, carbamazepine, barbiturates, rifampicin, phenobarbital, or St John's wort, alfentanil, alfuzosin, almotriptan, alprazolam, amiodarone, amitriptyline, amprenavir, aprepitant, aripiprazole, bepridil, bortezomib, bosentan, budesonide, buprenorphine, buspirone, carbamazepine, cilostazol, cisapride, cyclosporine, delavirdine, didanosine, digoxin, disopyramide dofetilide, donepezil, eletriptan, eplerenone, fluticasone, fosamprenavir, galantamine, systemic griseofulvin, indinavir, levobupivacaine, lopinavir, midazolam, mifepristone, modafinil, nateglinide, nefazodone, nelfinavir, oxcarbazepine, pimozide, quetiapine, quinidine, repaglinide, rifabutin, rifampin, rifapentine, ritonavir, saquinavir, sildenafil, sirolimus, tacrolimus, tadalafil, tolterodine, theophyllines, tolterodine, triazolam, valdecoxib, vardenafil, ziprasidone, zonisamide, statins, with the exception of pravastatin (Pravachol) or other "statins" which are not metabolized by or induce cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4 (CYP3A4), calcium channel blockers, Coumadin and macrolides or other agents that will be significantly perturbed in a clinically important way by the P450 inhibitory properties of ketoconazole
  • Concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors or histamine (H)2 blockers
  • Treatment with a non-approved or investigational drug or agent within 30 days before day 1 of trial treatment
  • Any unresolved chronic toxicity greater then Common Terminology Criteria (CTC) grade 2 from previous anticancer therapy
  • Incomplete healing from previous oncologic treatments or other major surgery
  • Inability to swallow oral capsules
  • Patients on digoxin will be excluded from this study

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00536991

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United States, New York
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Buffalo, New York, United States, 14263
Sponsors and Collaborators
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
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Principal Investigator: Saby George Roswell Park Cancer Institute
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Responsible Party: Roswell Park Cancer Institute Identifier: NCT00536991    
Other Study ID Numbers: I 68905
NCI-2011-00129 ( Registry Identifier: CTRP (Clinical Trial Reporting Program) )
I 68905 ( Other Identifier: Roswell Park Cancer Institute )
P30CA016056 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: September 28, 2007    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: May 15, 2017
Last Update Posted: June 14, 2017
Last Verified: May 2017
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Prostatic Diseases
Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate
Hydrocortisone acetate
Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antifungal Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
14-alpha Demethylase Inhibitors
Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors
Calcium-Regulating Hormones and Agents
Calcium Channel Agonists
Membrane Transport Modulators
Vasoconstrictor Agents