Sorafenib and Low Dose Cytarabine in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00516828
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : August 15, 2007
Last Update Posted : October 6, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Canadian Cancer Trials Group ( NCIC Clinical Trials Group )

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Sorafenib may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth or by blocking blood flow to the cancer. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cytarabine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving sorafenib together with cytarabine may kill more cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of giving sorafenib together with cytarabine and to see how well it works in treating older patients with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Leukemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes Drug: cytarabine Phase 1 Phase 2

Detailed Description:


  • To determine the recommended dose of sorafenib tosylate and cytarabine when given in combination to elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes who are not suitable for intensive chemotherapy. (Phase I)
  • To determine the safety, tolerability, toxicity profile, and dose-limiting toxicities in patients treated with this regimen. (Phase I)
  • To estimate the efficacy (as measured by complete response rate) in patients treated with this regimen. (Phase II)
  • To describe the toxic effects and overall response rate (complete and partial) in patients treated with this regimen. (Phase II)
  • To evaluate potential correlates of response in translational research studies including FLT-3 internal tandem duplications and point mutations in blasts. (Phase II)

OUTLINE: This is a multicenter study.

  • Phase I: Patients receive oral sorafenib tosylate twice daily on days 2-28 and cytarabine subcutaneously twice daily on days 1-10 at the dose level assigned at registration. Doses of both drugs will be escalated and the recommended doses for the combination will be determined. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 6 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients who respond to treatment will receive 2 cycles after response criteria are met.
  • Phase II: Patients receive sorafenib tosylate and cytarabine as in phase I at the recommended doses for the combination determined in phase I.

Bone marrow (or blood) samples are collected at baseline and at the end of each course of study treatment. Baseline samples are analyzed for mutational status of FLT-3 (i.e., internal tandem duplication [ITD] and point mutations).

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed at 4 weeks and then every 3 months thereafter until progression and toxicities resolve.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 21 participants
Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I/II Study of Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) in Combination With Low Dose ARA-C (CYTARABINE) in Elderly Patients With AML or High-Risk MDS
Study Start Date : July 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : March 2010
Actual Study Completion Date : January 2013

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Sorafenib and Cytarabine
Cytarabine: subcutaneously twice daily from day 1 - 10. Sorafenib: Days 2-28; at the dose level assigned at registration. Sorafenib will be given orally twice daily.
Drug: cytarabine
subcutaneously twice daily from Day 1 to 10

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Recommended phase II dose of sorafenib tosylate when given in combination with cytarabine (Phase I) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  2. Dose-limiting toxicity (Phase I) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  3. Complete remission (Phase II) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Overall response rate (complete and partial response) (Phase II) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  2. Time to progression (Phase II) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  3. Overall survival (Phase II) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  4. FLT-3 ITD endpoint mutation response correlation. [ Time Frame: 29 months ]
  5. Toxicity (Phase II) [ Time Frame: 29 months ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   60 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No


  • Diagnosis of 1 of the following:

    • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by FAB criteria (By morphology and routine histochemistry and confirmed, when possible, by flow cytometric analysis of surface immunophenotype; co-expression of lymphoid markers permitted)
    • High-risk myelodysplastic syndromes defined as IPSS category of intermediate-2 or greater
  • Must be considered unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy regimens
  • No documented CNS involvement


  • ECOG performance status 0-2
  • AST and ALT ≤ 2 times upper limit of normal (ULN)
  • Bilirubin normal
  • Creatinine ≤ 1.2 times ULN OR creatinine clearance ≥ 50 mL/min
  • Not pregnant or nursing
  • Negative pregnancy test
  • Fertile patients must use effective contraception
  • No history of other malignancies, except adequately treated nonmelanoma skin cancer, curatively treated in situ carcinoma of the cervix, or other solid tumors curatively treated with no evidence of disease for ≥ 5 years
  • No upper gastrointestinal or other conditions that would preclude compliance with or administration of oral medication
  • No serious illness or medical condition that would not permit the patient to be managed according to the protocol, including any of the following:

    • History of significant neurologic or psychiatric disorder that would impair the ability to obtain consent
    • Active, uncontrolled, serious infections
    • Active peptic ulcer disease
    • Evidence of bleeding diathesis
  • No myocardial infarction within the past 6 months
  • No congestive heart failure
  • No unstable angina
  • No active cardiomyopathy or unstable ventricular arrhythmia
  • No poorly controlled hypertension (e.g., systolic BP ≥ 150 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 95 mm Hg)
  • No known hypersensitivity to the study drugs or their components
  • No preexisting hypothyroidism prior to enrollment unless patient is euthyroid on medication
  • No neuropathy ≥ grade 2


  • At least 2 days since prior hydroxyurea
  • No other prior chemotherapy
  • No concurrent therapeutic doses (≥ 2 mg/day) of anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin)

    • Doses of up to 2 mg/day given for prophylaxis of thrombosis are accepted provided INR is ≤ 1.5
  • No other concurrent experimental drugs or anticancer therapy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00516828

Canada, Nova Scotia
QEII Health Sciences Center
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, B3H 1V7
Canada, Ontario
Juravinski Cancer Centre at Hamilton Health Sciences
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, L8V 5C2
Univ. Health Network-Princess Margaret Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 2M9
Canada, Quebec
McGill University - Dept. Oncology
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H2W 1S6
Sponsors and Collaborators
NCIC Clinical Trials Group
Study Chair: Brian Leber, MD, FRCPC McMaster Children's Hospital at Hamilton Health Sciences
Study Chair: David A. MacDonald, MD Nova Scotia Cancer Centre

Publications of Results:
Macdonal DA, Assouline SE, Brandwein J, Kamel-Reid S, Eisenhauer EA, Couban S, Foo A, Leber B. Phase I/II study of low-dose cytarabine with sorafenib as first-line therapy of elderly patients with AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. J Clin Oncology 28[15s, abstr 6564]. 2010.

Responsible Party: NCIC Clinical Trials Group Identifier: NCT00516828     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: I186
CAN-NCIC-IND186 ( Registry Identifier: NCI US - Physician Data Query )
CDR0000560975 ( Other Identifier: PDQ )
First Posted: August 15, 2007    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: October 6, 2015
Last Verified: July 2012

Keywords provided by Canadian Cancer Trials Group ( NCIC Clinical Trials Group ):
adult acute myeloid leukemia with 11q23 (MLL) abnormalities
adult acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16)(p13;q22)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(15;17)(q22;q12)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(16;16)(p13;q22)
adult acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21)(q22;q22)
untreated adult acute myeloid leukemia
secondary acute myeloid leukemia
de novo myelodysplastic syndromes
secondary myelodysplastic syndromes

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Leukemia, Myeloid
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Pathologic Processes
Neoplasms by Histologic Type
Bone Marrow Diseases
Hematologic Diseases
Precancerous Conditions
Antineoplastic Agents
Protein Kinase Inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Antiviral Agents
Anti-Infective Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs