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Chinese Versions of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV (SNAP-IV) Scale and Strengths Difficulties Questionnaire.

This study has been completed.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
National Taiwan University Hospital Identifier:
First received: June 23, 2007
Last updated: November 12, 2012
Last verified: August 2008

Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder (7.5% in Taiwan) with great impact on individual, family, and society. The diagnosis of ADHD is mainly based on clinical interview of parents and children with assistance of teachers' reports. Self-administered rating scales are useful for screening, assistance of diagnosis, and measurement of symptom changes over time or due to treatment effect. The goals of this study are to establish the norms and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of teacher and parent forms of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV (SNAP-IV) and the teacher, parent, and student forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for future studies on ADHD in Taiwanese populations.

Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, school-based survey with a multi-stage sampling method. The participants include a school-based sample of 3534 first to eighth graders was recruited from four areas: Taipei City, Taoyuan County, Tainan City and Chiayi County. Among them, 200students will be reassessed at 2-week interval for the test-retest reliability study. The instruments comprise the Chinese version of Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL), SDQ, SNAP-IV, and Adult ADHD Rating Scale. The informants include student participants older than 10 years old, their parents, and teachers. The main statistical methods include Pearson correlation, intraclass correlation, Chronbach's α for internal consistency, and mixed model to address lack of independence within the same classes and schools.

Anticipated Goals: We expect that this study will reach the following objectives:

  1. to obtain the primitive information about the prevalence of ADHD symptoms and emotional/behavioral problems among children and adolescents in Taipei and Yun-Ling;
  2. to enhance the awareness of school teachers and counselors about ADHD and other behavioral/emotional problems among students;
  3. to establish psychometric properties of the Chinese versions of SNAP-IV and SDQ for future use in clinical, school, and research settings.

Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Study Type: Observational
Official Title: Psychometric Study of the Chinese Versions of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, Version IV (SNAP-IV) Scale and Strengths Difficulties Questionnaire.

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Taiwan University Hospital:

Enrollment: 3600
Study Start Date: January 2005
Study Completion Date: July 2006
Detailed Description:
This protocol was prepared in Chinese

Ages Eligible for Study:   6 Years to 16 Years   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Non-Probability Sample
Study Population
School-based subjects & Clinical subjects with ADHD

Inclusion Criteria:

  • School-based subjects: around 3600 grade 1 to grade 8 students aged 6-16 from four sites in Taiwan and their parents (n = 7200)
  • Clinical subjects with ADHD: children and adolescents ages 6-16, who are diagnosed with ADHD, IQ >70, parents and teachers consent to completion of questionnaires.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Clinical subjects with ADHD: those who are comorbid with pervasive developmental disorder and/or mental retardation or other severe psychiatric disorders. Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder are not excluded.
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00491361

Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital
Taipei, Taiwan, 10002
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Taiwan University Hospital
Principal Investigator: Susan Shur-Fen Gau, MD, PhD Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital
  More Information

Achenbach, T. M., and Ruffle, T. M. The Child Behavior Checklist and related forms for assessing behavioral/emotional problems and competencies Pediatrics in Review (2000) 21(8):265-71. Becker, A., Woerner, W., Hasselhorn, M., et al. Validation of the parent and teacher SDQ in a clinical sample. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2004) 13 Suppl 2:II11-6. Goodman, R., Ford, T., Corbin, T., et al. Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) multi-informant algorithm to screen looked-after children for psychiatric disorders. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2004) 13 Suppl 2:II25-31. Yang, H. J., Soong, W. T., Chiang, C. N., et al. Competence and behavioral/emotional problems among Taiwanese adolescents as reported by parents and teachers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2000) 39(2):232-9.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: National Taiwan University Hospital Identifier: NCT00491361     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 9461700519
NTUH95-301 ( Other Identifier: National Taiwan University Hospital )
Study First Received: June 23, 2007
Last Updated: November 12, 2012

Keywords provided by National Taiwan University Hospital:
ADHD, SNAP-IV, SDQ, ASRS, reliability, validity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Mental Disorders processed this record on May 25, 2017