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Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment for Obstetrical Hemorrhage: Zambia and Zimbabwe (NASG)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00488462
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 20, 2007
Last Update Posted : January 21, 2015
Information provided by (Responsible Party):

Study Description
Brief Summary:
This trial will address the question of whether early application of the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) at the Satellite Health Facility (SHF) level before transport to a Referral Hospital (RH) will decrease maternal mortality and morbidity. The available evidence indicates that the NASG substantially decreases blood loss, but there is no evidence that its application will reduce extreme adverse outcomes. It is also not known if possible side effects associated with NASG use might outweigh potential benefits. This study would rigorously test the effectiveness of the NASG using an experimental design with adequate power to detect statistically significant decreases in morbidity and mortality.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment
Hypovolemic Shock Hemorrhage Device: non-pneumatic anti-shock garment

Detailed Description:

This study is a cluster randomized controlled trial to examine the effects of NASG application as a first-aid device at the SHFs before transfer to Referral Hospitals (RHs).

The first step will include start-up activities and formative data collection, including facility staff training in data collection, how to collect blood in the closed-end blood collection drape, and in an evidence-based standardized clinical protocol for obstetric hemorrhage prevention and hemorrhage and shock management. Next will be a period of baseline data collection at the RHs and SHFs, during which clinical and demographic data will be collected from women diagnosed with obstetric hemorrhage and shock. After this baseline data collection period, we will introduce the study intervention, initially at the RHs and then at SHFs.

The intervention will include: review of study protocol differences between baseline and the NASG-intervention phases, provision of the NASG, detailed training on the use of NASG for health care providers and staff, as well as on-site support and supervision for use of the NASG. After the RH providers are fully trained and have become proficient in NASG use, SHFs will be randomized into 19 intervention and 19 control facilities. Intervention SHFs will receive the NASG training described above, while control SHFs will receive a refresher training on the topics included in the baseline training.

The final step will be three years of NASG-intervention data collection at the RHs and the SHFs on women diagnosed with obstetric hemorrhage and shock on the same outcomes collected in the baseline period. A total of approximately 2,340 women from the SHFs will be included in the NASG-intervention data collection phase of the cluster randomized trial: 1,170 women in the intervention group and 1,170 women in the control group.

Study Design

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 887 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Non-Pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment for Obstetrical Hemorrhage: Zambia and Zimbabwe
Study Start Date : October 2007
Primary Completion Date : May 2012
Study Completion Date : May 2012

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

MedlinePlus related topics: Bleeding Shock
U.S. FDA Resources

Arms and Interventions

Arm Intervention/treatment
No Intervention: Control
Clinics will collect data on patients experiencing shock due to obstetrical hemorrhage. In the control arm, half of the study clinics will not use the NASG but the NASG will be available at the referral hospital for patients transported there.
Clinics will collect data on patients experiencing shock due to obstetrical hemorrhage. In the intervention arm, half of the study clinics will use the NASG on patients before transporting to the referral hospital.
Device: non-pneumatic anti-shock garment
In the intervention arm, half of the study clinics will use the NASG when a patient meets the study criteria.
Other Names:
  • NASG
  • Anti-Shock Garment
  • Manufactured by Zoex
  • Life Wrap

Outcome Measures

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Frequency of mortalities and frequency of severe morbidities combined as extreme adverse outcomes [ Time Frame: during hospital stay ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Mean amount of blood loss in mL , frequency of emergency hysterectomy, time to recovery from shock. [ Time Frame: during hospital stay ]
    Blood loss as measured by the blood collection drape at the RH or pad between SHF and RH.

Eligibility Criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   15 Years and older   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

To participate in these study activities, women must be willing and able to participate, be able to sign or mark a consent form, and speak one of the languages into which the consent form has been translated, including English, Nyanja, and Bemba in Zambia, and English, Shona and Ndebele in Zimbabwe.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Women who are pregnant or postpartum and experiencing obstetric hemorrhage with 2 of the following 3:

blood loss > 500 mL (at SHF, 1000 mL at RH) SBP <100 mm Hg pulse >100 bpm

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Absolute exclusion criteria include: current viable third trimester intrauterine pregnancy that can be delivered in the next 20 minutes after hemorrhage begins and/or current bleeding sites above the diaphragm. Relative exclusion criteria include: a history or current clinical evidence of mitral stenosis or congestive heart failure (CHF). These must be relative contraindications that will be assessed at the time of hemorrhage and clinical judgment will need to be utilized to evaluate each case individually. Thus if the patient can be transported and delivered rapidly and is suspected or known to have valvular heart disease, she will be excluded from the study. In other cases, depending on the severity of the hemorrhage, if the patient is dyspneic in the NASG, at the SHF level, the NASG will be loosened, if that does not result in relief, the NASG will be removed. If the patients at the RH have decreasing oxygen saturation levels as demonstrated by pulse oximeter, the NASG will be loosened, if that does not result in relief, the NASG will be removed.

Women suffering obstetric hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock who have no detectable vital signs (non palpable pulse and BP) at the time of their arrival at the RH are ineligible for enrolment in the study ("non-resuscitable") if: 1) the woman does not respond to resuscitation attempts after 30 minutes and 2) more than three hours have elapsed between the start of hemorrhage and the beginning of her treatment. (As this is a clinical intervention of a potentially life saving device, the study clinicians should try the NASG on any patient if they feel it may resuscitate her; however, if the woman meets the criteria above they are ineligible for having their data entered into the study.)

Contacts and Locations

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00488462

Kitwe Central Hospital
Kitwe, Copperbelt, Zambia
Ndola Central Hospital
Ndola, Copperbelt, Zambia
University Teaching Hospital (UTH)
Lusaka, Zambia
Harare Hospital
Harare, Zimbabwe
Parienyatwa Group of Hospitals
Harare, Zimbabwe
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of California, San Francisco
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
University of Zambia
University of Zimbabwe
World Health Organization
Principal Investigator: Suellen Miller, CNM, PhD University of California, San Francisco
Study Director: Elizabeth Butrick, MPH, MSW University of California, San Francisco
Principal Investigator: Thulani Magwali, OBGYN University of Zimbabwe Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe (UZ)
Principal Investigator: Gricelia Mkumba, OBGYN University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka Zambia (UTH)
More Information

Additional Information:
Miller S, Hensleigh P. Non-pneumatic Anti-shock Garment for Obstetric Hemorrhage. Chapter 14 in: (eds) B-Lynch, C, Keith, L, LaLonde, A, Karoshi, M. An International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) Book Postpartum Hemorrhage: New Thoughts, New Approaches. London, UK: Sapiens Publications; 2006. p. 136-46.
Miller S, Ojengbede A, Turan JM, Ojengbede O, Butrick E, Hensleigh P. Anti-Shock Garments for Obstetric Hemorrhage. Current Women's Health Reviews. 2007;3(1):3-11.
Miller S, Turan JM, Ojengbede A, Ojengbede O, Fathalla MF, Morhason-Bello IO, et al. The pilot study of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment (NASG) in women with severe obstetric hemorrhage: Combined results from Egypt and Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006;94(Supplement 2):S154-6.
Morris, J., Meyer, C., Fathalla, MF, Youssif, MM, Al-Hussaini, TK, Camlin, C., Miller, S. Treating Uterine Atony with the NASG in Egypt. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health 5(1):37-42, 2011
Ojengbede, O., Galadanci, H., Morhason-Bello, IO, Nsima, D., Camlin, C., Morris, J., Butrick, E., Meyer, C., Mohammed, AI, Miller, S. The Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment for Postpartum Haemorrhage in Nigeria. African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health 5(3):135-9, 2011
Stenson, A., Lester, F., Meyer, C., Morris, J., Vargas, V., Miller, S. The Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment: How Applier Strength and Body Mass Index Affect Pressure. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2011; 5:33-37

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: University of California, San Francisco
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00488462     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1R01HD053129-01A1 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
5R01HD053129-03 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: June 20, 2007    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: January 21, 2015
Last Verified: January 2015

Keywords provided by University of California, San Francisco:
obstetric hemorrhage
hypovolemic shock
non-pneumatic anti-shock garment
safe motherhood
maternal mortality
maternal morbidity

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Pathologic Processes