Measuring the Influence of Kefir on Children's Stools on Antibiotics (MILK) (MILK)
|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481507|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 1, 2007
Results First Posted : March 26, 2012
Last Update Posted : January 16, 2018
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Respiratory Tract Infections||Other: Kefir Other: Placebo||Not Applicable|
Diarrhea is a common and costly disease of children in the United States. Children less than 5 years of age experience 20-35 million episodes of diarrhea per year. These episodes lead to 2-3.5 million physician visits (which account for 10% of all visits), more than 200,000 hospitalizations (13% of hospital admissions in children less than 5 years), and 325-425 deaths annually. In 1991, the outpatient costs of treating diarrhea for children under age 3 were calculated at 0.6-1 billion dollars per year.
Acute diarrhea in young children is almost always caused by infections or antibiotics. The rate of diarrhea associated with antibiotic usage is 20-35%, with children 3-36 months receiving on average 2-3 antibiotic prescriptions per year. Studies have shown that diarrhea due to either antibiotics or infections is caused by disturbances of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
The current treatment for diarrhea in young children is oral rehydration, which is used to treat dehydration but plays no role in prevention. Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in sufficient amounts, may improve health. Probiotics have the potential to treat and prevent diarrhea by improving the intestinal flora when disturbed by events such as antibiotics. Important to their use is that they are of human origin, survive passage through the gut, and are safe in very large dosages.
Studies have examined the potential health benefits of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of both antibiotic and infectious diarrhea. The probiotics have generally been given as supplements or pills. In placebo controlled randomized studies using these techniques, probiotics have generally been shown to decrease antibiotic associated diarrhea by 15-25% over placebo. Other studies have enrolled children with acute diarrhea, generally from rotavirus, and found a 30-50% cure rate in the probiotic group over placebo.
Kefir, available in the United States, is a milk product derived by the action of ten probiotics. A daily dose of 10^6-10^9 colony forming units of probiotics has been studied and recommended for health benefits.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||125 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)|
|Official Title:||Measuring the Influence of Kefir on Children's Stools on Antibiotics (MILK)|
|Study Start Date :||July 2007|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||April 2008|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||April 2008|
|Placebo Comparator: Placebo||
The intervention was Kefir, a drink that is commercially available in the United States. The following probiotics are present in active Kefir: Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus plantarum, Lactococcus rhamnosus, Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis subspecies diacetylactis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and 1 yeast, Saccharomyces florentinus. The placebo group was heat-treated to kill all cultures. Parents were asked to ensure that their enrolled child consumed at least half of the bottle (150 mL)everyday.
The intervention was Kefir,a drink that is commercially available in the United States. The following probiotics are present in the Kefir: Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus plantarum, Lactococcus rhamnosus, Lactococcus casei, Lactococcus lactis subspecies diacetylactis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and 1 yeast, Saccharomyces florentinus. Parents were asked to ensure that their enrolled child consumed at least half of the bottle (150mL) everyday.
- Percentage of Participants With Diarrhea by Parental Report [ Time Frame: 14 days ]The primary outcome was the percentage of participants receiving antibiotics with diarrhea during the 14-day follow-up period, as determined by parental report.
- Absences From Daycare or School Owing to Illness, Missed Parental Work Owing to the Child Being Ill, Vomiting, Stomach Pain, Constipation, Runny Nose, Cough, Earaches, Fever, Irritability, Lethargy, and Loose Stools. [ Time Frame: 14 days ]
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00481507
|United States, District of Columbia|
|Georgetown University Deptartment of Family Medicine|
|Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20007|
|Principal Investigator:||Daniel Merenstein, MD||Georgetown University|