The Influence of Hypnotic Medications on Sleep Arousal and Its Effect on Gastroesophageal Reflux
|Study Design:||Observational Model: Case Control
Time Perspective: Prospective
|Official Title:||The Influence of Hypnotic Medications on Sleep Arousal and Its Effect on Gastroesophageal Reflux|
- Do hypnotic medications effect sleep arousal due to gi reflux?
|Study Start Date:||March 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
|Procedure: Sleep Studies|
|Procedure: Sleep Studies|
The use of hypnotic medications for the treatment of insomnia has increased as has the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications. Nocturnal acid reflux is associated with severe injuries such as narrowing of the esophagus, inflammation and cancer of the esophagus.
A Gallup survey conducted in 2000, on behalf of the American Gastroenterological Association, found that 79% of respondents reported heartburn at night and 75% reported that symptoms affected their sleep. The impact that hypnotic medications (sleep medications) have on nocturnal reflux has not been well established. Orr et al. demonstrated that sleep arousal is critical in clearing acid from the esophagus and that decreased wakefulness results in prolonged esophageal acid exposure. Singh et al. showed that use of the hypnotic alprazolam, increases esophageal acid exposure time, possibly by blunting arousal and thereby interfering with acid clearance mechanisms. No study has examined sleep architecture and pattern (i.e. polysomnography) with and without hypnotic medication use and correlated this with how long the esophagus is exposed to acid.
Esophageal motility, gravity and salivation are three primary mechanisms by which acid is removed from the esophagus. Blunting nocturnal arousal with hypnotic medications may exacerbate gastroesophageal reflux or trigger it in otherwise healthy subjects, independent of any effects the medication may have on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. By depressing consciousness with pharmacologic agents (i.e. hypnotics, anxiolytics, antipsychotics) the body's defense against esophageal acid clearance may be impaired. Primary peristalsis, salivation and the warning symptoms of GERD are lost, thereby exposing the esophagus to a greater number and duration of GERD events.
The potential deleterious effects that hypnotic medications may have on nocturnal GERD has important implications on understanding the impact that hypnotic medications have on GERD.
The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate the effect that zolpidem (Ambien) has on sleep pattern, nocturnal GERD and symptoms.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00462137
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|Thomas Jefferson University|
|Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, 19107|
|Principal Investigator:||Anthony J DiMArino, MD||Thomas Jefferson University|