The Role of P-cresol and Related Protein Fermentation Metabolites in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

The recruitment status of this study is unknown because the information has not been verified recently.
Verified December 2013 by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven.
Recruitment status was  Active, not recruiting
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Björn Meijers, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Identifier:
First received: February 28, 2007
Last updated: December 16, 2013
Last verified: December 2013

Protein-bound uremic retention solutes are increasingly recognized to play a role in the pathophysiology of the uremic syndrome. Numerous in vitro findings are indicative for their implication in the biochemical and physiological changes of uremia. Several of these protein-bound retention solutes originate from bacterial protein fermentation in the colon. p-cresyl sulfate, a fermentation metabolite of the amino acid tyrosine, is considered a prototype of this group of uremic solutes. The protein binding of this molecule was shown to be about 90% in end-stage renal disease patients. Several data have suggested that p-cresol plays a role in the immunodeficiency of uremia. Recently, a link between the molecule and endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated. Also other members of the class of protein-bound solutes have been found to be associated with immune dysfunction, endothelial cell dysfunction and, closely related to the latter, oxidative stress.

Free serum levels of p-cresol were shown to be greater in stage 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients treated with hemodialysis (HD) hospitalized for infectious disease. Furthermore, a positive relationship was found between serum total p-cresol level and a uremic symptom score in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), whereas a correlation with small water-soluble solutes and the middle molecule β2-microglobulin was absent. A recent prospective observational study in stage 5 CKD patients treated with conventional HD (3 x 4 hours per week) indicated that the accumulation of p-cresol is a risk factor for overall mortality.

Data on the serum concentrations of p-cresol in chronic kidney disease patients are lacking. The investigators hypothesise that the serum concentration of p-cresol is an independent predictor of progression to end stage renal disease and is an independent predictor for cardiovascular disease.

Condition Intervention
Chronic Kidney Disease
Behavioral: observational

Study Type: Observational
Study Design: Observational Model: Cohort
Time Perspective: Prospective
Official Title: A Single Centre Observational Cohort Study on the Prognostic Relevance of P-cresol and Related Uremic Retention Solutes in the Development and/or Progression of Renal Failure and Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:

Biospecimen Retention:   Samples Without DNA
Serum, plasma Urine (if provided by patient)

Estimated Enrollment: 500
Study Start Date: October 2005
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Intervention Details:
    Behavioral: observational
    effect of protein-bound uremic retention solutes

Ages Eligible for Study:   16 Years and older
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Sampling Method:   Probability Sample
Study Population
chronic kidney disease patients KDOQI stage 1-5 not yet on dialysis

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Informed consent
  • Chronic kidney disease, stage 1-4 kDOQI
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00441623

Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Leuven, Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, 3000
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Principal Investigator: Björn KI Meijers, MD Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Study Director: Pieter Evenepoel, MD, PhD Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
  More Information

No publications provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven

Additional publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number):
Responsible Party: Björn Meijers, Prof, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Identifier: NCT00441623     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: PCS001 
Study First Received: February 28, 2007
Last Updated: December 16, 2013
Health Authority: Belgium: Institutional Review Board

Keywords provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:
chronic kidney disease
cardiovascular disease
risk stratification

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases
Kidney Diseases
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Renal Insufficiency
Urologic Diseases processed this record on February 11, 2016