Pyronaridine Artesunate (3:1) in Children and Adults With Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00440999|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 27, 2007
Results First Posted : September 20, 2021
Last Update Posted : November 2, 2021
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|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Malaria||Drug: Pyronaridine artesunate Drug: Chloroquine||Phase 3|
This is a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, non-inferiority study comparing the efficacy and safety of the fixed combination of pyronaridine/artesunate (ie, PP/AS [PA]) (180:60 mg) with that of standard chloroquine therapy in children and adults with acute uncomplicated P. vivax malaria. The study population will include 456 patients, comprising male and female children (≥20 kg body weight) and adults recruited from study sites in South East Asia and India.
Patients will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either oral PA (180:60 mg tablets) plus chloroquine-placebo or oral chloroquine (155 mg tablets).plus PA-placebo, once a day for 3 consecutive days (Days 0, 1, and 2). For PA, posology was based on body weight ranges with subjects receiving 1 to 4 tablets depending on their body weight. The dose range covered by this regimen is 7.2:2.4 mg/kg to 13.8:4.6 mg/kg, which has been shown to be effective and safe in Phase I and II studies. The chloroquine daily dose is 10 mg/kg on Days 0 and 1 and 5 mg/kg on Day 2 for children, and 620 mg on Days 0 and 1 and 310 mg on Day 2 for adults.
Patients will be confined to the study facility for ≥4 days (Days 0,1,2 & 3) and ideally remain near the study site for ≥7 days, or once fever and parasite clearance has been confirmed for ≥24 hours - whichever occurs later.
The primary efficacy end point for the study is the crude cure rate on Day 14, which is defined as the absence of P. vivax parasitaemia on Day 14. Scheduled follow-up visits will continue until completion of the study at Day 42. In the case of adverse events reported and unresolved at Day 42, patients will be followed up for a further 30 days, or until resolution of the event.
For patients who complete the study up to Day 28 and who have normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activity, a 14-day course of primaquine (15 mg/day for adults and 0.3 mg/kg/day for children) will be administered starting on Day 28 to complete their radical cure. Subjects who are deficient in G-6-PD and who completed the study up to Day 28 will be treated per country policy.
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||456 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Parallel Assignment|
|Masking:||Double (Care Provider, Investigator)|
|Official Title:||A Phase III Comparative (Double-blind, Double-dummy) Randomised Multicentre Study to Assess the Safety & Efficacy of Oral Pyronaridine Artesunate (180:60 mg) Versus Chloroquine (155 mg) in Children & Adult Patients With Acute Vivax Malaria|
|Study Start Date :||March 2007|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||April 2008|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||September 2008|
Experimental: pyronaridine artesunate
The tablet strength is 180:60 mg oral PA plus chloroquine-placebo. Depending on their body weight, patients receive 1 to 4 tablets once a day, for 3 days. The actual dose-level range covered by this regimen is 7.2: 2.4 mg/kg to 13.8:4.6 mg/kg pyronaridine artesunate.
Drug: Pyronaridine artesunate
Other Name: Pyramax
Active Comparator: chloroquine
The tablet strength is 155 mg oral chloroquine plus PA-placebo.
For adults: 620 mg (i.e. 4 tablets) on Days 0 and 1 and 310 mg (i.e. 2 tablets) on Day 2. For children: 10 mg/kg on Days 0 and 1 and 5 mg/kg on Day 2.
- Crude Cure Rate on Day 14 [ Time Frame: Day 14 ]Cure rate on Day 14 is defined as the absence of P. vivax parasitaemia on Day 14 irrespective of temperature (axillary, oral, tympanic, rectal) without previously meeting any of the criteria of treatment failure throughout the follow-up period.
- Crude Cure Rate on Days 21 and 28. [ Time Frame: Day 21 and 28 ]Cure on Day 21 and 28 is defined as the absence of P. vivax parasitaemia on Day 21 and 28 irrespective of temperature (axillary, oral, tympanic, rectal) without previously meeting any of the criteria of treatment failure throughout the follow-up period.
- Parasite Clearance Time [ Time Frame: Days 0 to 42 ]Parasite clearance time is defined as the time from first dosing to the time of first blood draw with parasite clearance. Parasite clearance is defined as zero presence of asexual parasites for 2 consecutive negative readings taken between 7 and 25 hours apart.
- Fever Clearance Time [ Time Frame: Days 0 to 42 ]Fever clearance time is defined as the time from first dosing to the first normal reading of temperature (<37.5°C for axillary/tympanic or <38°C for oral/rectal) for 2 consecutive normal temperature readings taken between 7 and 25 hours apart.
- Percentage of Subjects With Parasite Clearance on Days 1, 2, and 3 [ Time Frame: Days 1, 2, and 3 ]Percentage of subjects with parasite clearance on Day 1 (24 hours after first dose), Day 2 (48 hours after first dose), and Day 3 (72 hours after first dose).
- Percentage of Subjects With Fever Clearance on Days 1, 2, and 3 [ Time Frame: Day 1, 2, and 3 ]Percentage of subjects with fever clearance on Day 1 (24 hours after first dose), Day 2 (48 hours after first dose), and Day 3 (72 hours after first dose).
- Number of Participants With Adverse Events [ Time Frame: Day 0 to 42. Subjects experiencing AEs at Day 42 were followed for up to 30 days after the end of study or resolution of the event, whichever was earlier ]Number of participants with adverse events, including clinically significant laboratory results, ECG, vital signs or physical examination abnormalities.
- Percentage of Subjects With PCR-corrected Cure Rate on Days 14, 21, and 28 [ Time Frame: Day 14, 21, and 28 ]Cure on Days 14, 21, and 28 is defined as the absence of P. vivax parasitaemia on Days 14, 21, and 28 irrespective of temperature (axillary, oral, tympanic, rectal) without previously meeting any of the criteria of treatment failure throughout the follow-up period.
- Percentage of Subjects With Crude and PCR-corrected Cure Rate on Day 42 [ Time Frame: Day 42 ]Cure on Day 42 is defined as the absence of P. vivax parasitaemia on Day 42 irrespective of temperature (axillary, oral, tympanic, rectal) without previously meeting any of the criteria of treatment failure throughout the follow-up period.
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|Ages Eligible for Study:||3 Years to 60 Years (Child, Adult)|
|Sexes Eligible for Study:||All|
|Accepts Healthy Volunteers:||No|
- Male or female patients between the age of 3 and 60 years, inclusive.
- Body weight between 20 kg and 90 kg with no clinical evidence of severe malnutrition.
Presence of acute uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection confirmed by:
- Fever, as defined by axillary/tympanic temperature ≥37.5°C or oral/rectal temperature ≥38°C, or history of fever in the previous 24 hours (history of fever must be documented) and,
- Positive microscopy of P. vivax with parasite density ≥250/ mcL of blood (including at least 50% of asexual parasites).
- Written informed consent, in accordance with local practice, provided by patient and/or parent/guardian/spouse. If the patient is unable to write, witnessed consent is permitted according to local ethical considerations.
- Ability to swallow oral medication.
- Ability and willingness to participate based on information given to patient or parent or guardian and access to health facility.
- Presence of a mixed Plasmodium infection.
- Presence of other clinical condition requiring hospitalization.
- Presence of significant anaemia, as defined by Hb <8 g/dL.
- Known history or evidence of clinically significant disorders such as cardiovascular (including arrhythmia, QTc interval ≥450 msec), respiratory (including active tuberculosis), hepatic, renal, gastrointestinal, immunological (including active HIV-AIDS), neurological (including auditory), endocrine, infectious, malignancy, psychiatric or other abnormality (including recent head trauma).
- Known history of hypersensitivity, allergic or adverse reactions to pyronaridine, chloroquine or artesunate or other artemisinins.
- Known history of hypersensitivity, allergic or adverse reactions to chloroquine, primaquine and related agents.
- Known active Hepatitis A IgM (HAV-IgM), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or Hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab).
- Known seropositive HIV antibody.
- Have received any antimalarial treatment in the preceding 2 weeks, as determined by history and, whenever feasible, by screening test.
- Have received antibacterial with known antimalarial activity in the preceding 2 weeks.
- Have received any investigational drug within the past 4 weeks.
- Liver function tests (AST/ALT levels) >2.5 times the upper limit of normal range.
- Known significant renal impairment as indicated by serum creatinine levels of >1.4 mg/dL.
- Female patients of child-bearing potential must be neither pregnant (as demonstrated by a negative pregnancy test) nor lactating, and must be willing to take measures to not become pregnant during the study period.
- Previous participation in the present clinical trial with PA.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00440999
|Pailin Referral Hospital|
|Pailin, Pailin Province, Cambodia|
|Wentlock District Hospital|
|RSUD TC Hillers|
|Maumere, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia, 86113|
|MaeLamad District Hospital|
|Mae Ramat, Tak Province, Thailand|
|MaeSod General Hospital|
|Mae Sot, Tak Province, Thailand|
|Study Director:||Isabelle Borghini Fuhrer, PhD||Medicines for Malaria Venture|
Publications of Results:
Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
|Responsible Party:||Medicines for Malaria Venture|
|Other Study ID Numbers:||
|First Posted:||February 27, 2007 Key Record Dates|
|Results First Posted:||September 20, 2021|
|Last Update Posted:||November 2, 2021|
|Last Verified:||October 2021|
artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT)
pyronaridine artesunate (Pyramax)
Vector Borne Diseases