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The Effect of Antimicrobial Therapy on the Serum Level of P-cresol in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

This study has suspended participant recruitment.
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Björn Meijers, Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Identifier:
First received: February 7, 2007
Last updated: September 14, 2011
Last verified: September 2011

An important subgroup of protein-bound toxins are generated as a result of protein fermentation in the colon. P-cresol is a fermentation metabolite of tyrosine. In renal failure, the colonic generation rate of p-cresol is markedly elevated. After absorption, the majority of p-cresol is conjugated to form p-cresyl sulphate. There is clear evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, that accumulation of conjugated fermentation metabolites is correlated with clinical important endpoints. Free p-cresol is an independent predictor for mortality in hemodialysis patients.

Moreover, in renal failure patients, neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis is capable of normalising the clearly elevated serum concentrations of p-cresyl sulphate. Removal is at least partially diminished by the important protein binding of p-cresol. Besides adaptation of renal replacement therapies to improve removal of protein bound solutes, another approach is to lower the generation of uremic toxins.

The mechanisms underlying colonic carbohydrate and protein fermentation, responsible for the generation of p-cresol, are only partially understood. On the one hand, the ratio of fermentable carbohydrates to proteins has been shown to be an important determinant of protein fermentation. On the other hand, changes in the colonic bacterial flora influence the generation of p-cresol in dogs and in healthy human individuals.

The effect of antibiotic therapy on bacterial protein fermentation and thus on the generation of p-cresol is not known. A reanalysis of data abstracted from a recent longitudinal study in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients suggests that antibiotic therapy may lower p-cresol levels substantially. The current study aims at confirming these data in a prospective manner.

Condition Intervention Phase
Chronic Kidney Disease
Drug: Flucloxacillin
Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Study on the Effect of Flucloxacillin on the Serum Level of P-cresol in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • p-cresol reduction rate [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]

Estimated Enrollment: 10
Study Start Date: March 2006
Estimated Study Completion Date: December 2014
Estimated Primary Completion Date: December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: I
Drug: Flucloxacillin
500 mg QD oral
Other Name: Floxapen
No Intervention: II


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age > 18
  • Exit site infection, requiring antibiotic treatment
  • Maintenance therapy with peritoneal dialysis

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Signs of peritonitis
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00433342

Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Leuven, Vlaams-Brabant, Belgium, 3000
Sponsors and Collaborators
Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven
Study Chair: Björn Meijers, MD UZ Leuven
Study Director: Pieter Evenepoel, MD, PhD UZ Leuven
  More Information

Responsible Party: Björn Meijers, Dr., Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Identifier: NCT00433342     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: ML3532
Study First Received: February 7, 2007
Last Updated: September 14, 2011

Keywords provided by Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven:
peritoneal dialysis

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Kidney Diseases
Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Urologic Diseases
Renal Insufficiency
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Anti-Infective Agents processed this record on April 25, 2017