Study of TNF-Antagonism in the Metabolic Syndrome (II)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00413400
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : December 19, 2006
Results First Posted : December 2, 2010
Last Update Posted : December 2, 2010
Information provided by:
Massachusetts General Hospital

Brief Summary:
This study will investigate whether etanercept will result in improved inflammatory indices, glucose tolerance and endothelial function in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Metabolic Syndrome Drug: Etanercept Drug: Placebo Not Applicable

Detailed Description:
Metabolic syndrome is an increasingly prevalent disorder associated with elevated risks of type II DM (diabetes mellitus) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A subclinical inflammatory state is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and coronary artery disease (CAD). Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) -alpha is an inflammatory cytokine that is increased in a spectrum of inflammatory diseases as well as in insulin resistance. TNF-alpha antagonists are clinically effective in the inflammation of arthritides, and have recently been shown by our group to decrease inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers in metabolic syndrome. Data suggests that adiponectin, a recently discovered adipocytokine that may protect against the development of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis, may be downregulated by TNF-alpha. In addition, population based studies have shown that those with the highest levels of TNF-alpha have an increased relative risk of cardiovascular morbidity while rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with TNF-alpha blockade appear protected from cardiovascular disease. We will perform a 6-month study in which we will administer etanercept, a TNF-alpha receptor fusion protein, to subjects with metabolic syndrome to investigate its effect on surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease, including inflammatory markers, adiponectin and glucose tolerance and endothelial function. The results of the proposed study will have broad implications regarding the physiological role of TNF-alpha on the inflammatory cascade, cardiovascular indices and endothelial function.

Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 40 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effects of Etanercept in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome (II)
Study Start Date : December 2006
Actual Primary Completion Date : September 2009
Actual Study Completion Date : September 2009

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Etanercept

Arm Intervention/treatment
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Drug: Placebo
50 mg one syringe sc 2x per week for three months followed by 50 mg one syringe sc 1X per week for three months

Active Comparator: Etanercept Drug: Etanercept
50 mg one syringe sc 2X per week for three months followed by 50 mg one syringe sc 1X per week for three months
Other Name: Enbrel

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. C-reactive Protein (CRP) [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    As a measure of C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an inflammatory marker, Log10 of the CRP at 6 months is reported

  2. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    6 month value of IL-6 (pg/mL)

  3. Adiponectin [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    The ratio of circulating high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin to total adiponectin ratio (HMW:total Adiponectin) at 6 months is reported.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Glucose Tolerance [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    Fasting glucose (mg/dL) at 6mo

  2. Endothelial Function [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    Reactive Hyperemia Index (RHI) using peripheral artery tonometry (using Endo-PAT 2000). Peripheral artery tonometry measures blood flow in the tip of the index finger at baseline and in response to vaso-occlusion (inflated blood pressure cuff). The reactive hyperemia index is an index of vasodilation after occlusion compared to baseline. A higher value indicates better vasoreactivity. As this is a relatively new test, there are no thoroughly validated clinically utilized norms.

  3. White Blood Cell (WBC) Count [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6 months ]
    Change in WBC during study (WBC at six months minus WBC at baseline)

  4. Cardiac Echo Ejection Fraction (EF) [ Time Frame: Baseline to 6 months ]
    change in EF (6mo - baseline). Please note that the value given is the absolute change in EF (which has units of percent), not the percent change in the variable.

  5. Body Composition [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    6 month visceral adipose tissue (cm^2) - cross-sectional area of the visceral adipose tissue at the level of the 4th lumbar vertebrae was measured using single-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    Circulating concentrations of Tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) at 6 months

  7. Other Adipocytokines [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    circulating resistin at 6 months

  8. Lipid Levels [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    total cholesterol (mg/dL) at 6 months

  9. Adipocyte Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) Levels of Adipocytokines Including Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) -Alpha [ Time Frame: 6 months ]
    fold-change in subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of TNF-alpha (mRNA) after 6 months

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Hyperinsulinemia in the upper quartile of the non-diabetic population defined as >= 10 mU/mL (based on Framingham Data, oral communication, James Meigs, MD) or fasting glucose 110-126 mg/dL
  2. Plus two of the following:

    • Abdominal obesity defined by waist hip ratio > 0.90 for men and > 0.85 for women and BMI > 30 kg/m2
    • Dyslipidemia including serum triglycerides >= 150 mg/dl or serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) < 0.9 mmol/L for men (35 mg/dL) and < 1.0 mmol/L (39mg/dL) for women
    • Hypertension defined as blood pressure >= 140/90 or on medication

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Age < 18 or > 60 years
  2. Body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2
  3. Positive tuberculosis (purified protein derivative [PPD]) skin test (5mm induration or more) on screening
  4. Mycobacterial disease treated less than 6 months.
  5. Current or recurrent infection or any underlying condition that may predispose to infection or anyone who has been admitted to the hospital due to bacteremia, pneumonia or any other serious infection.
  6. Therapy with glucocorticoid or immunosuppressant at time of recruitment or within past 3 months.
  7. Prior or concurrent cyclophosphamide therapy
  8. Use of a live vaccine 90 days prior to, or during this study.
  9. History of blood dyscrasia including any kind of anemia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia. Women with a reversible cause of anemia that has resolved will be eligible.
  10. Hemoglobin < 11 g/dl
  11. History of malignancy (except patients with surgically cured basal cell or squamous cell skin cancers who will be eligible)
  12. History of organ transplantation
  13. HIV-positive status determined by HIV test at screening or known history of any other immuno-suppressing disease.
  14. Hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection detected at screening, lupus (SLE), history of multiple sclerosis, transverse myelitis, optic neuritis or epilepsy
  15. Patients with known autoimmune or inflammatory conditions (excluding patients with stable, treated hypothyroidism)
  16. Severe comorbidities (diabetes mellitus requiring insulin, congestive heart failure (CHF) (EF<50% at baseline will be exclusionary) of any severity, myocardial infarction (MI), cerebral vascular accident (CVA) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) within 3 months of screening visit, unstable angina pectoris, oxygen-dependent severe pulmonary disease
  17. Uncontrolled systolic blood pressure > 150 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 100 mmHg
  18. Fasting blood glucose > 126 mg/dL
  19. Creatinine > 1.5
  20. Current use of insulin, any oral anti-hyperglycemic agents (including insulin sensitizing agents). Initiation of insulin, oral hypoglycemics, or insulin sensitizing agents during the study will result in discontinuation from the study.
  21. Initiation of statins, niacin, antihypertensive or fibrate therapy within 6 weeks of the study. Chronic use of fibrates, niacin, or antihypertensives for > 6 weeks prior to study initiation at a stable dose is not exclusionary, but chronic use of statins for > 6 months is exclusionary. Initiation of statins, fibrates, niacin or antihypertensive treatments during the study is not exclusionary but will be considered in the analysis (see Protection against risks).
  22. Positive pregnancy test or lactating females
  23. Women of child-bearing potential not currently using non-hormonal birth control methods including barrier methods (intrauterine device [IUD], condoms, diaphragms) or abstinence
  24. Subject is currently enrolled in another investigational device or drug trial(s), or subject has received other investigational agent(s) within 28 days of baseline visit.
  25. Subjects who have known hypersensitivity to Enbrel or any of its components or who is known to have antibodies to etanercept
  26. Concurrent sulfasalazine therapy
  27. History of recent alcohol or substance abuse (< 1 year)
  28. Any condition judged by the patient's physician to cause this clinical trial to be detrimental to the patient.
  29. History of non-compliance with other therapies

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00413400

United States, Massachusetts
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
Principal Investigator: Steven K Grinspoon MGH

Responsible Party: Steven Grinspoon, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital Identifier: NCT00413400     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 2006-P-001060
First Posted: December 19, 2006    Key Record Dates
Results First Posted: December 2, 2010
Last Update Posted: December 2, 2010
Last Verified: November 2010

Keywords provided by Massachusetts General Hospital:
Visceral adiposity
glucose tolerance
endothelial function
metabolic syndrome

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Metabolic Syndrome X
Pathologic Processes
Insulin Resistance
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
Sensory System Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Antirheumatic Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Immunosuppressive Agents
Immunologic Factors