Low Fluence 1064nm Laser Hair Reduction for Pseudofolliculitis Barbae in Skin Types IV, V, VI
Procedure: 1064nm Nd:YAG laser at 12 J/cm2, 20 ms and 10mm spot size.
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Clinical Safety and Efficacy of Prototype Devices for Hair Growth Control: Task 2.4|
- Reduction of PFB by assessing dyspigmentation, papule counts and cobblestoning.
- In addition, hair and papule counts were performed on a subset of five patients.
|Study Start Date:||January 2006|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||May 2006|
Pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) is an acneiform eruption of the bearded area usually seen in dark-skinned individuals with thick, tightly curled hair. Typically, the hair shafts curve back directly into adjacent skin or the shaft penetrates through the follicular epithelium into the superficial dermis. The subsequent foreign body inflammatory reaction leads to discomfort, pigment alteration, infection, scarring and a potential decreased ability to shave. PFB continues to be a significant problem in the military with tremendous cost to the US Government, both in direct treatment of the condition as well as indirectly due to the loss of man-hours in personnel training, clinic visits, and ultimately, administrative separation.
Chemical depilatories, topical corticosteroids, topical retinoids, topical antibiotics, and eflornithine hydrochloride cream are helpful in the management of PFB. Growing a beard is usually curative; however in the military a clean shaven face is required. Since 1984, the US Navy has not allowed the wearing of beards, noting that facial hair may interfere with the proper fitting of protective gear used against biochemical warfare agents, or in the case of oxygen mask or breathing apparatus. In refractory cases, permanent laser hair removal with the long-pulse Nd:YAG has been shown to decrease the severity of PFB in dark skinned individuals. This wavelength is safe, effective, and due to its increased penetration, allows for increased ratio of hair bulb to epidermal heating in patients with Fitzpatrick skin type IV through VI.
Traditional 1064nm laser fluences (defined here as 22-40 J/cm2) for a normal bearded subject produce significant discomfort. Blistering and subsequent pigmentary changes have been reported in patients with type V-VI skin.7 Patients often require topical anesthesia with prolonged application times, ranging from 45 to 90 minutes. Treatments are usually scheduled every four to six weeks and in the military, these are conducted by trained physicians at major treatment facilities. Theoretically, the aim of the 1064nm laser treatment is long lasting or permanent hair reduction via conductive thermal diffusion causing lethal damage to the hair bulb and bulge area from the melanosome-containing hair shaft and matrix. However, in patients treated at the highest possible fluence eventually become symptomatic within 12 to 18 months of their final treatment.
The purpose of this study was to determine if PFB could be mitigated with a weekly treatment protocol. We evaluated a1064nm Nd:YAG laser using a fluence of 12J/cm2 in patients with PFB and Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V and VI.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00402129
|United States, California|
|Naval Medical Center San Diego|
|San Diego, California, United States, 92134|
|Principal Investigator:||E. Victor Ross, MD||Scripps Green Hospital|