Increased Calorie Intake to Reverse Energy Deficiency in Exercising Women: Impact on Bone and Menstrual Cyclicity
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||"REFUEL" Active Women's Study II: Increased Caloric Intake to Reverse Energy Deficiency in Exercising Women: Impact on Bone and Menstrual Cyclicity|
- Reproductive hormones [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
- Metabolic hormones [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
- Metabolic bone markers [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
- Bone mineral density [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
- Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
- Three Factor Eating Questionnaire [ Time Frame: 1 year ]
|Study Start Date:||September 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||December 2014|
|Primary Completion Date:||December 2014 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
This group contains women with exercise-associated menstrual disturbances (EAMD) and receives an intervention of increased caloric intake during the 12-month intervention. The targeted increase in caloric intake is 20-30% of baseline energy expenditure.
During the 12 month intervention, volunteers in the Increased calorie intake group will follow a modified dietary plan designed to achieve and maintain a target level of 20-30% above their previously determined baseline, in an effort to achieve a chronic energy surplus of +20-30% over their baseline energy requirements.
No Intervention: EAMD Control
This group contains women with exercise-associated menstrual disturbances (EAMD) and undergoes the same procedures as the EAMD+Calories group. However, this group is instructed to maintain exercise and eating habits.
No Intervention: Heathy Control
This group contains exercising women with regular, ovulatory menstrual cycles. this group is instructed to maintain body weight and exercise and eating habits.
Low levels of estrogen found in physically active, premenopausal women with irregular or absent menstrual periods is likely caused by insufficient energy (calorie) intake compared to energy expenditure. Premenopausal women with menstrual disturbances and amenorrhea suffer from reductions in bone mineral density, particularly in the lumbar spine. Bone loss observed in amenorrheic women may be serious enough to result in osteoporotic fractures, but is also associated with a high prevalence of stress fractures. Increased calorie intake should help improve energy status, menstrual status, and bone health.
Comparison: Premenopausal women with irregular or absent menstrual periods will be assigned to either receive additional calories or serve as controls. A group of premenopausal women with normal menstrual periods will also be used for comparison.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00392873
|United States, Pennsylvania|
|Women's Health and Exercise Laboratories, The Pennsylvania State University|
|University Park, Pennsylvania, United States, 16802|
|Principal Investigator:||Mary Jane De Souza, Ph.D.||Penn State University|