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The Effects of Nicotine on Cognition in Schizophrenia

This study has been completed.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00383747
First Posted: October 3, 2006
Last Update Posted: April 28, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
Stanley Medical Research Institute
North Suffolk Mental Health Association
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
A. Eden Evins, Massachusetts General Hospital
  Purpose
Patients with schizophrenia have a variety cognitive deficits and nicotine has been shown to normalize some of these deficits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nicotine on cognition in schizophrenia.We will evaluate the effects of transdermal nicotine compared with placebo for attentional impairments in non-smokers with schizophrenia and controls.

Condition Intervention Phase
Schizophrenia Drug: transdermal nicotine patch Drug: Transdermal Nicotine Patch Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Double Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of the Effects of Transdermal Nicotine on Cognitive Function in Non-Smokers With and Without Schizophrenia

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by A. Eden Evins, Massachusetts General Hospital:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Effects of Nicotine Patch Compared With Placebo in Non- Smokers With Schizophrenia and Control Groups on Attention Measured by the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version [ Time Frame: Visit 1 and visit 2 (separated by an interval of 7-10 days) ]
    The primary outcome measure was attention as measured by the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs (CPT-IP) Version 4.0 (Biobehavioral Technologies, New York, USA), developed for use in patients with schizophrenia and normal controls. In this task, participants were asked to respond when two identical pairs of numbers were presented in sequence by pressing a mouse key as quickly as possible using the dominant hand.The stimuli were presented with increasing cognitive load in successive blocks: two-,three- and four-digit target in the first, second and third block, respectively. Hit reaction time, a standard outcome variables on the CPTIP, is presented here. It was measured 3 hrs after application of the patch


Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Effects of Nicotine Patch Compared With Placebo in Non- Smokers With Schizophrenia and Control Groups on Visual Attention and Cognitive Interference as Measured by Three Card Stroop [ Time Frame: Visit 1 and visit 2 (separated by an interval of 7-10 days) ]
    This standard test of visual attention, processing speed and cognitive interference was performed, in which three cards (Stoelting Co., Wood Dale, IL, USA) were presented in order: the first card with color names, the second with colored patches of ink and the third with color namesprinted in incongruously colored ink. Participants were asked to read or name as many colors as possible in 45 s for each condition. The raw interference score was calculated by subtracting the predicted color-word score (calculated using raw word and color scores) from the observed raw color-word score. This value was converted to an interference T score by referring to a standardized table. A higher interference T score indicates better task performance with less interference. It was measured 3 hrs after application of the patch, after CPT

  • Effects of Nicotine Patch Compared With Placebo in Non- Smokers With Schizophrenia and Control Groups on Letter Number Sequencing [ Time Frame: Visit 1 and visit 2 (separated by an interval of 7-10 days) ]
    This measure of working memory and auditory attention was performed under two conditions. In the first condition, participants were read progressively longer lists of letters and numbers and instructed to repeat these exactly as given, without reordering. In the second condition, participants were read progressively longer lists of numbers and letters and instructed to re-order the list and give the numbers first in ascending order and then the letters in alphabetical order (WMS-III). The sum of the trial scores provided the item score and the sum of the item scores provided the total score.It was measured 3 hrs after application of the patch, after CPT and Stroop. The total score ranges from 0 to 21.Higher scores of Letter number sequencing means better working memory and auditory attention

  • Effects of Nicotine Patch Compared With Placebo in Non- Smokers With Schizophrenia and Control Groups on Lateralized Psychomotor Speed Measured by the Grooved Pegboard [ Time Frame: Visit 1 and visit 2 (separated by an interval of 7-10 days) ]
    The Grooved Pegboard (model 32025 Lafayette Instrument Company, Lafayette, IN, USA). In this test of lateralized psychomotor speed, participants had 45 s to place as many pegs as possible into grooves on a board using their dominant hand. The number of correctly placed pegs were recorded for each of the two trials.It was measured 3 hrs after application of the patch after CPT, Stroop and Letter number sequencing


Enrollment: 60
Study Start Date: April 2004
Study Completion Date: January 2009
Primary Completion Date: January 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: Nicotine Patch Drug: transdermal nicotine patch
14mg transdermal nicotine application
Other Name: Nicoderm CQ patch
Placebo Comparator: Placebo Nicotine Patch Drug: Transdermal Nicotine Patch
14mg transdermal nicotine application

Detailed Description:

We propose to test the efficacy and safety of transdermal nicotine for attention and working memory in outpatients with stable symptoms of schizophrenia treated with high potency antipsychotic medications that do not smoke cigarettes or use nicotine-containing products. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to determine whether transdermal nicotine, initiated in a clinic setting and dosed for four hours is safe and effective for improving attention and spatial working memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia. This is an add-on study, subjects will continue with their usual medications and treatments throughout.

Subjects are 30- non-smoking outpatients with stable treated schizophrenia and 30 normal controls who do not have a major mental illness and who are matched for age sex and parental education. Subjects are randomized to one of 2 groups for order of receiving active and placebo patch, using a computer generated random number sequence. Randomization is concealed using opaque envelopes. Assessors and subjects are blind to group allocation.

The primary outcome measure is d' measure on the CPT-IP following a 4 hour administration of the transdermal nicotine patch. Secondary outcome measures are performance on tasks assessing attention, numeric and visuospatial working memory, psychomotor ability, executive functioning and motivation for reward following nicotine patch administration.

Specific Aims

  1. To evaluate the effectiveness of transdermal nicotine compared with placebo for attentional impairment in patients with schizophrenia

    Hypothesis 1.1: Subjects will demonstrate greater signal detection as measured by the d' (hits vs. false alarms) on the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP) following 4-hour nicotine administration when compared with placebo administration.

    Hypothesis 1.2: Subjects will demonstrate decreased false alarms on the CPT-IP following 4-hour nicotine administration when compared with placebo administration.

    Hypothesis 1.3: Subjects will demonstrate decreased reaction time on the CPT-IP following 4- hour nicotine administration when compared with placebo administration.

  2. To evaluate the effect of transdermal nicotine in patients with schizophrenia compared with normal matched controls

Hypothesis 2.1: Schizophrenia subjects will demonstrate greater improvement in signal detection as measured by the d' (hits vs. false alarms) on the Continuous Performance test identical pairs version(CPT-IP) following 4-hour nicotine administration when compared with normal controls.

Hypothesis 2.2: Schizophrenia subjects will demonstrate greater reduction in false alarms on the CPT-IP following 4-hour nicotine administration when compared with normal controls.

Hypothesis 2.3: Schizophrenia subjects will demonstrate decreased reaction time on the CPT-IP following 4- hour nicotine administration when compared with normal controls. Performance Test Identical Pairs Version

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 60 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

Patients:

  • DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia,
  • age 18 - 60 inclusive,
  • able to provide informed consent,
  • treated with antipsychotic medications at a stable dose for at least 4 weeks,
  • not treated with an investigational medication in the past 30 days,
  • WRAT-3 IQ raw score greater than or equal to 35,
  • non smokers for more than 3 months*,
  • normal or corrected to normal vision.

Non Smoking defined by:

  1. Self report of not smoking a single cigarette in the past 3 months.
  2. Salivary Cotinine level < 30 ng/ml at screening and on the day of testing
  3. Expired air CO < 9ppm on the day of the testing

Inclusion Criteria:

Control Group:

  • Age 18 - 60 inclusive,
  • able to provide informed consent,
  • not treated with an investigational medication in the past 30 days,
  • WRAT-3 IQ raw score greater than or equal to 35,
  • non smokers for more than 3 months*,
  • normal or corrected to normal vision,
  • Non Smoking as defined above.

Exclusion Criteria:

Patients:

  • Use of any nicotine containing product in the past 3 months by self report,
  • use of cholinesterase inhibitors such as galantamine in the past 3 months,
  • untreated ischaemic heart disease,
  • uncontrolled hypertension,
  • current unstable serious medical illness (renal, neoplastic, hematological),
  • allergy to patches.
  • Currently or planning to be pregnant in the next 8 weeks, as verified by positive pregnancy test, or childbearing potential and not using adequate contraception. Those not of childbearing potential include post-menopausal, surgically sterilized, and male participants.
  • Substance abuse in the past month: self-reported, diagnosed during chart review, and verified by a positive salivary test for cotinine, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ethanol, TCH, opiates or PCP at screen.
  • Recent deterioration in mental state, current major depressive disorder, history of cognitive impairment secondary to other disorders such as head injury, dementia, general medical condition, diagnosis of mental retardation

Exclusion criteria:

Controls:

  • Past or present DSM IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder, or mental retardation.
  • First degree relative with diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder,
  • use of cholinesterase inhibitors such as galantamine in the past 3 months,
  • untreated ischaemic heart disease,
  • uncontrolled hypertension,
  • current unstable serious medical illness (renal, neoplastic, hematological,)
  • allergy to patches,
  • currently or planning to be pregnant in the next 8 weeks, as verified by positive pregnancy test, or childbearing potential and not using adequate contraception. Those not of childbearing potential include post-menopausal, surgically sterilized, and male participants.
  • Substance abuse in the past month: self-reported, diagnosed during chart review, and verified by a positive salivary test for cotinine, cocaine, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ethanol, TCH, opiates and PCP at screen.
  • History of cognitive impairment secondary to other disorders such as head injury, dementia, general medical condition
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00383747


Locations
United States, Massachusetts
Massachusetts General Hospital Schizophrenia Research Program
Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02114
Sponsors and Collaborators
Massachusetts General Hospital
Stanley Medical Research Institute
North Suffolk Mental Health Association
Investigators
Principal Investigator: A E EVINS, MD MPH Massachusetts General Hosptal
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: A. Eden Evins, PI, Massachusetts General Hospital
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00383747     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 04T574
CORRC 07-2004 ( Other Identifier: North Suffolk Mental Health Association CORRC )
First Submitted: September 29, 2006
First Posted: October 3, 2006
Results First Submitted: April 15, 2015
Results First Posted: April 28, 2017
Last Update Posted: April 28, 2017
Last Verified: March 2017

Keywords provided by A. Eden Evins, Massachusetts General Hospital:
cognition
nicotine
schizophrenia

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Mental Disorders
Nicotine
Ganglionic Stimulants
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Nicotinic Agonists
Cholinergic Agonists
Cholinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action