Imaging the Neurobiology of a Behavioral Treatment for Cocaine Dependence (PET-CRA)
|Study Design:||Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Imaging the Neurobiology of a Behavioral Treatment for Cocaine Dependence|
- Change From Baseline in the Binding Potential of [11C]Raclopride [ Time Frame: baseline and 3 months ]The relationship between Methylphenidate-induced Dopamine Release in the Striatum (Measured by Displacement of [11C]-Raclopride by Oral Methylphenidate) and Treatment Response (Measured Using Community Reinforcement Approach and Contingency Management) was studied. Dopamine Function was assessed by evaluation of endogenous Dopamine release over the course of treatment (i.e., at 3 months as compared to baseline). Endogenous Dopamine release is inversely related to the change in binding potential (delta BPND) of [11C]raclopride, in that a negative delta BPND, or increased displacement of [11C]raclopride, reflects an increase in the release of endogenous dopamine over the course of treatment.
- Cocaine Craving, Withdrawal Symptoms, Pattern of Cocaine Use [ Time Frame: 2x/week for 24 weeks ]measurement of abstinence, measured as vouchers earned and clinical appointments attended using CRA
|Study Start Date:||July 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||January 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||July 2010 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Active Comparator: Contingency Management w/ CRA
Cocaine users: Contingency management w/ Community Reinforcement Approach
Behavioral: Community Reinforcement Approach
Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA): The community reinforcement treatment program will be carried out in accordance with NIDA's therapy manual (13).During weeks 13 through 24, patients will meet once per week with their therapists. Sessions will focus on promoting continued change in the life areas addressed in the first 12 weeks of treatment or new components are added as needed.
No Intervention: Healthy Control
A group of healthy matched comparison subjects with no DSM-IV axis I Disorder was included; they were matched for cigarette smoking, gender, and ethnicity.
Previous studies have shown that cocaine dependence is associated with a decrease in dopamine release in response to a psychostimulant challenge. We have recently completed a study demonstrating that this loss of pre-synaptic dopamine function is associated with the choice to self-administer cocaine in the presence of an alternative reinforcer. This finding consistent with animal models of reinforcement and which show that dopamine transmission serves to modulate reward based behavior, and in this case, allows for a more adaptive response to be made in the presence of a competing reinforcer.
The previous study was performed in non-treatment seeking cocaine dependent subjects using an inpatient laboratory model to measure the choice for cocaine. Thus, the goal of the present proposal is to investigate this association in a more realistic setting where cocaine dependent out patients face the choice between using cocaine and the alternative reinforcers presented to them in a therapeutic setting. The Community Reinforcement Approach with voucher incentives is a treatment for cocaine dependence that has been shown success in a number of controlled studies. Since the basis of this therapy is to reduce the reinforcing value of cocaine by increasing the density of alternative, healthy reinforcers, we have chosen to correlate outcome from this treatment with measures of presynaptic dopamine function. We propose to scan cocaine dependent patients with [11C]raclopride and oral methylphenidate in order to measure dopamine release. Patients will be scanned before treatment and at 12 weeks into therapy. We predict that the patients with the greatest loss of dopamine transmission at the pre-treatment scan will be those who fail to respond to treatment. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the patients who do respond to treatment will experience a recovery of dopamine function, measured at the post-treatment scan.
In addition, subjects enrolled in this study will undergo functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and spectroscopy studies in order to asses differences in neuronal integrity, learning, and impulse control.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00376558
|United States, New York|
|New York State Psychiatric Institute|
|New York, New York, United States, 10032|
|Principal Investigator:||Diana Martinez, MD||Research Foundation for Mental Hygiene, Inc.|