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Preventing Postpartum Relapse to Smoking Using Yoga and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Randomized Pilot Study

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
University of Pittsburgh Identifier:
First received: August 2, 2006
Last updated: February 7, 2008
Last verified: February 2008
The purpose of this study is to develop strategies to maintain smoking abstinence initiated in pregnancy and prevent relapse in the postpartum period.

Condition Intervention Phase
Smoking Cessation Behavioral: Yoga Behavioral: Yoga and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Phase 1

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Preventing Postpartum Relapse to Smoking Using Yoga and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Randomized Pilot Study

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by University of Pittsburgh:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • smoking abstinence by CO testing

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • smoking abstinence by self-report

Estimated Enrollment: 30
Study Start Date: April 2006
Study Completion Date: January 2008
Detailed Description:

Many women quit smoking during pregnancy, but postpartum relapse rates are high, approximately, 50-80% (Van't Hof, et al). The majority of women who quit smoking during pregnancy resume smoking within the first 3 months postpartum (McBride, et al). The environmental risks of tobacco smoke on the newborn child can lead to acute respiratory infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, and SIDS. Several studies have tried to identify reasons for the high rates of relapse. Postpartum relapse has been attributed to decreased self-efficacy, the lack of effective coping strategies to resist temptation to smoke, and weight concerns (McBride, et al). Addictive behaviors such as smoking are learned behavioral means of coping. By learning new rules for dealing with problems, a behavior can be modified or unlearned. Physical exercise, when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as a smoking cessation treatment, is useful in the maintenance of smoking cessation in women. Yoga, as a form of exercise, has been shown to promote the desire to stop smoking and enhance subjective well-being and mood. Though untested in postpartum relapse prevention, yoga practice, when coupled with CBT, may address both mood and physiologic postpartum sensations that may be associated with the prevention of smoking relapse. Women are more apt to decrease or even stop smoking during pregnancy, and if successful in sustaining cessation, are likely to live longer.

This randomized exploratory pilot study will use a controlled parallel group design using smoking cessation yoga intervention and cognitive behavioral therapy. The study will include a total of 30 participants aged 18-45 years. Smoking status will be identified by self-report and carbon monoxide testing at enrollment. At randomization and following time points, smoking status will be identified by self-report and confirmed by carbon monoxide testing.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 45 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Must have the ability to read, write, and understand English.
  • Must have quit smoking during their current pregnancy.
  • Must possess the desire to remain smoke-free after delivery.
  • Obtain permission from obstetrician to participate in yoga.
  • Must be reachable by telephone.
  • If subject becomes pregnant again while in the study, she can still participate with written permission from her primary care physician.

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Untreated hypertension.
  • A history of: glaucoma, major depression, alcohol abuse or substance disorder, anorexia nervosa, or head trauma.
  • Recent abdominal surgery (such as caesarean section).
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00360581

United States, Pennsylvania
University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States, 15261
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Pittsburgh
Principal Investigator: Susan A. Albrecht PhD, RN, FAAN University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing
  More Information Identifier: NCT00360581     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 0603012
Study First Received: August 2, 2006
Last Updated: February 7, 2008

Keywords provided by University of Pittsburgh:
Smoking abstinence processed this record on September 19, 2017