We used three approaches to identify families in endemic neighborhoods, yielding three populations of families.
Population I: A neighborhood to the northeast of the city was identified through a family with two cases of disease.
Population 2: Individuals with suspected VL are admitted to one of three public hospitals in Natal. Families were interviewed and examined if they wished to participate.
Population 3: The neighboring families living closest to population 2 families were identified.
Individuals with ongoing illnesses other than VL were excluded from analyses.
Any medical conditions found or suspected based upon history, exam or blood tests were either treated by the investigators or referred to the appropriate medical facility in Natal.
Pregnant women and children less than 1 year were not given any skin test.
No exclusions based on ethnicity were done.