Long-Term Renoprotection of Optimal Antiproteinuric Doses of Benazepril and Losartan in Chronic Renal Insufficiency
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The primary goal of the trial was to evaluate whether the optimal antiproteinuric doses of benazepril (an ACE inhibitor) or losartan (an ARB), as compared with their conventional doses, can safely improve the long-term renal outcome in nondiabetic patients with proteinuria and chronic renal insufficiency. The second aim was to compare the long-term renal protection between benazepril and losartan at similar clinical setting.
Condition or disease
Renal Insufficiency,ChronicDisease ProgressionProteinuriaDose-Response Relationship,DrugACE InhibitorAngiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers
The primary efficacy measure was the time to the first event of the composite endpoint of a doubling of the serum creatinine concentration, ESRD or death.
Secondary Outcome Measures :
Secondary endpoints included changes in urinary protein excretion rate and the progression of renal disease assessed by creatinine clearance and glomerular filtration rate as calculated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation-4.
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Ages Eligible for Study:
18 Years to 70 Years (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:
Serum creatinine concentration of 1.5 to 5.0 mg per deciliter (133 to 442 µmol/L)
Creatinine clearance of 20 to 70 ml per minute per 1.73m2, with variations of less than 30 percent in the three months before screening evaluation
nondiabetic renal disease
Persistent heavier proteinuria (defined by urinary protein excretion of more than 1.0 g per day for three or more months without evidence of urinary tract infection or overt heart failure [a New York Heart Association class of Ⅲ or Ⅳ])
Immediate need for dialysis
Treatment with corticosteroids, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or immunosuppressive drugs
Hyper-or hypokalemia (serum potassium concentration 5.6 mmol per liter or more，or 3.5 mmol per liter or less)
Myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident in the year preceding the trial
Connective-tissue disease; and obstructive uropathy