Study of Alemtuzumab Versus Anti-thymocyte Globulin to Help Prevent Rejection in Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Alan Farney, Wake Forest Baptist Health
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00331162
First received: May 26, 2006
Last updated: April 26, 2016
Last verified: April 2016
  Purpose
The purpose of this research study is to compare the effects of the two most commonly used anti-T cell induction agents(alemtuzumab and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin) to prevent rejection in kidney and pancreas transplant patients. Alemtuzumab is Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for treating a certain type of cancer (leukemia), and Thymoglobulin® (rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin) is approved for anti-rejection treatment, but neither drug is FDA approved for administration at the time of transplantation to help prevent rejection. Even so, many transplant centers use these medications at the time of transplantation and believe that their use helps to decrease the risk of developing rejection following kidney and pancreas transplantation. Which drug might be better is not known. Subjects will receive either alemtuzumab (one administration) or rabbit anti-thymocyte (3 to 7 doses) at and within the first week of transplantation. Subjects will be assigned to either the alemtuzumab or rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin groups by chance. The two groups will be compared to see if there are meaningful differences for survival, organ function, side effects, and quality of life. The follow-up care after transplant for subjects in the study is the same as that for patients who are not in the study, except that a quality of life questionnaire (estimated to take 10 minutes to complete) will be completed at the time of transplant and through year 2 during selected scheduled clinic visits. A retrospective chart review will occur at 3-5 years post-transplant to follow incidence of chronic rejection, patient and graft survival and graft function.

Condition Intervention Phase
Graft Rejection
Drug: Alemtuzumab
Drug: Anti-Thymocyte Globulin
Phase 4

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Alemtuzumab Versus Thymoglobulin Induction Therapy in Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Wake Forest Baptist Health:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Patient survival [ Time Frame: 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Graft survival [ Time Frame: 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Acute Rejection [ Time Frame: 5 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Hematologic adverse events [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Infectious adverse events [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Other adverse events [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: Yes ]
  • Cost [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]
  • Health status and quality of life [ Time Frame: 2 years ] [ Designated as safety issue: No ]

Estimated Enrollment: 275
Study Start Date: February 2005
Estimated Study Completion Date: June 2017
Estimated Primary Completion Date: June 2017 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: 1
Alemtuzumab
Drug: Alemtuzumab
30 mg/100ml NS intraoperatively. Start after dexamethasone administration and prior to reperfusion of the allograft. Infuse over a minimum of 2 hours.
Active Comparator: 2
Anti-Thymocyte Globulin
Drug: Anti-Thymocyte Globulin

1.5 mg/kg per dose through a central line intraoperatively and on POD# 2 and 4, then continue on alternate days until a therapeutic tacrolimus(or cyclosporine) level is achieved, or until the SCr < 3-4 mg/dL.

Give first dose over 6 hours, subsequent doses over 4 hours.

Premedication to be given with the first 3 doses:

Tylenol 650mg PO/PR Benadryl 25-50mg PO/IV Daily scheduled corticosteroid dose or other corticosteroid as deemed appropriate.

Hold infusion if temperature > 100.5ºF; Adjust dose for low WBC or Plt count Peripheral Thymoglobulin administration: Prepare dose in 500cc NS; Add heparin 1,000 units and hydrocortisone 20mg to the bag; Infuse over a minimum of 6 hours


Detailed Description:

Anti-Thymocyte Globulin, rabbit (r-ATG, Thymoglobulin®) is a polyclonal antibody against T-lymphocytes that is used for the prevention and treatment of acute allograft rejection. r-ATG induction therapy is effective in preventing acute allograft rejection, however the usual 7-14 day course involves extensive clinical monitoring and is costly. Recent studies had suggested that smaller cumulative doses are efficacious for induction therapy, and may have an advantage by decreasing the adverse effects associated with the agent (such as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia). Our program subsequently modified our r-ATG induction regimen in November 2001 to give doses on alternate days for at least three doses and has achieved excellent results. However, this regimen is somewhat complex in that it requires central venous access for administration, pre-medication administration to prevent infusion-related reactions, and monitoring of vital signs during each infusion.

Alemtuzumab (Campath®) is a humanized monoclonal antibody to CD52 that is FDA approved for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), but has also been used for immunosuppression induction at the time of solid organ transplant and as anti-rejection therapy. CD52 is present on most lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, and NK cells, and causes antibody-dependent cell lysis following the binding of alemtuzumab to the CD52 surface antigen. Alemtuzumab produces significant lymphocyte depletion similar to r-ATG, so some investigators began evaluating it as a preconditioning agent in tolerance protocols (using very low-dose maintenance immunosuppression) in solid organ transplantation. While these studies showed no significant tolerogenic potential for alemtuzumab, one or two 20-30 mg doses of alemtuzumab produced a similar degree of lymphocyte depletion as r-ATG administration. Based on these preliminary data in transplant recipients and prior safety data obtained from safety and efficacy studies of alemtuzumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, some US transplant centers changed from using r-ATG to alemtuzumab as their primary induction agent. Most of these centers (notably Wisconsin and Northwestern, where more than 500 kidney and pancreas patients have received alemtuzumab, personal communication Dixon Kaufman, Northwestern) use one or two doses of alemtuzumab for induction, followed by a traditional 2-3 drug maintenance immunosuppressive regimen (rather than the low-dose immunosuppression used in the tolerance protocols).

Knechtle and colleagues from the University of Wisconsin have reported a comparable incidence of acute rejection and favorable graft survival in 130 patients who received a single intraoperative 30 mg dose (+/- an additional dose on post-operative day 1) of alemtuzumab compared with a historical cohort who received r-ATG, OKT3, an IL-2 receptor antagonist, or no induction. In addition, the group found that there was a dramatically lower incidence of acute rejection in the patients who experienced delayed graft function in the alemtuzumab group (9% vs 45% in the control group, p=0.0078).

The use of alemtuzumab as an induction agent in solid organ transplantation is appealing. Only a single intraoperative dose would be required (compared with between 2 and 6 additional doses of r-ATG post-op), thereby eliminating the necessity for central venous access and extensive clinical and nurse monitoring. In addition, the cost of therapy would be less with alemtuzumab than with r-ATG. At WFUBMC, 18 recipients of kidney or kidney/pancreas transplants who received alemtuzumab have had only a 9% six-month rejection rate. Our clinical experience suggests that the agents produce similar results; however, a prospective, randomized study to compare the safety and efficacy of alemtuzumab with r-ATG has not been reported. Also, although alemtuzumab would offer a significant medication cost savings over r-ATG, the impact on the overall cost of care has yet to be established. A comparative study will help us decide if we should make alemtuzumab our new standard of care at this institution.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of alemtuzumab (Campath-1H) for induction therapy in kidney and pancreas transplantation compared to our standard of care, alternate-day r-ATG.

  Eligibility

Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 65 Years   (Adult)
Genders Eligible for Study:   Both
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
Criteria

Enrollment of kidney transplant patients has been completed. The protocol has been amended to enroll 50 additional subjects who will receive either a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, pancreas after kidney transplant, or solitary pancreas transplant.

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Male or female patients who receive a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, pancreas after kidney transplant, or solitary pancreas transplant
  • Age 18 to 65
  • Females of child bearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test at time of transplant
  • Ability to give informed consent

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Inability to give informed consent
  • ABO incompatibility
  • T-cell or B-cell positive cross match
  • Patients with a previous hypersensitivity to alemtuzumab, anti-thymocyte globulin, or any monoclonal or polyclonal antibody preparation
  • Current active infection (currently receiving antibiotics, treatment for active infection within 1 week of transplant, or medical judgement)
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen positive
  • Human immunodeficiency virus positive
  • Any malignancy within 2 years except for successfully treated basal or squamous cell carcinoma of skin
  • Pregnancy
  • Breast feeding women
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00331162

Locations
United States, North Carolina
Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center
Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States, 27157
Sponsors and Collaborators
Wake Forest Baptist Health
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Alan C Farney, MD, Ph.D. Wake Forest Baptist Health
  More Information

Publications:
Responsible Party: Alan Farney, Professor of Surgery, Wake Forest Baptist Health
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00331162     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: BG04-498 
Study First Received: May 26, 2006
Last Updated: April 26, 2016
Health Authority: United States: Institutional Review Board
Individual Participant Data  
Plan to Share IPD: No

Keywords provided by Wake Forest Baptist Health:
Renal Transplantation
Pancreas Transplantation
Graft Rejection
Immunosuppression
Kidney failure, chronic
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Alemtuzumab
Pancrelipase
Pancreatin
Antilymphocyte Serum
Antineoplastic Agents
Gastrointestinal Agents
Immunologic Factors
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Immunosuppressive Agents

ClinicalTrials.gov processed this record on August 30, 2016