Cognitive-behavior Therapy for MS-Related Chronic Pain
|Multiple Sclerosis||Behavioral: Cognitive-behavior therapy Other: Interventional|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Cognitive-behavior Therapy for MS-Related Chronic Pain|
- Pain Intensity [ Time Frame: baseline ]The Numeric Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS-I) is an 11-point numeric rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable). Participants were asked to rate their usual, worst and least pain over the past week. The average of these numbers will serve as the primary outcome measure.
- Pain Intensity [ Time Frame: Baseline to Post Treatment (12 weeks) ]The Numeric Rating Scale of pain intensity (NRS-I) is an 11-point numeric rating scale (0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable). Participants were asked to rate their usual, worst and least pain over the past week. The average of these numbers will serve as the primary outcome measure.
|Study Start Date:||July 2006|
|Study Completion Date:||March 2011|
|Primary Completion Date:||March 2011 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Experimental: Arm 1
Behavioral: Cognitive-behavior therapy
Behavioral: Cognitive-behavior therapy
CBT: The components of CBT include (1) identification of idiosyncratic beliefs about pain and pain treatment, as well as reconceptualization of the pain experience as subject to personal control (sessions 1-2), (2) instruction in specific cognitive (e.g., distraction) and behavioral (e.g., change in activity patterns such as alternating activity with periods of rest) skills (sessions 3-8), and (3) consolidation of cognitive/behavioral skills through activities such as role playing (sessions 9-11).
Active Comparator: Arm 2
Interventional: Educational intervention
Educational intervention: Session topics will include information on the etiology of MS, MS subtypes and disease progression, common symptoms of MS, medical management of MS, rehabilitation approaches to management of MS-related symptoms, exercise, sick day management, stress management, psychosocial adjustment, family involvement, and appropriate use of the health care system.
The primary purpose of the proposed study is to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of tailored CBT with standard pharmaceutical care (CBT/SC) in reducing pain, disability, and distress among persons with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) related pain conditions. This will entail: (1) evaluating the feasibility, perceived credibility, participation and adherence rates, and satisfaction related to CBT, (2) conducting a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of CBT relative to an education control/standard care (ED/SC) condition, and (3) evaluating possible predictors of treatment response including demographics, disease-relevant variables, cognitive functioning, and motivation or readiness to adopt a self-management approach to MS-related pain.
Research Design: A randomized mixed factorial controlled design will be employed in which CBT/SC is compared to EDSC. Repeated assessments of key outcome domains will occur at pretreatment/baseline, at 15 weeks (post-treatment), and 20, 36, and 52 (follow-up) weeks.
Methodology: Participants in this trial will be 124 persons with MS (including veterans and non-veterans) who report persistent MS-related pain (e.g., neuropathic pain, pain related to muscle spasms, neuralgias) of at least moderate intensity (pain severity of 4 or greater on the numeric rating scale) despite optimal pharmacological management. Participants must be at least 21 years of age and able to provide informed consent. Exclusion criteria include: (1) pending surgery or interventional anesthesiological procedures for pain, (2) currently psychotic or actively suicidal or homicidal, (3) current alcohol or substance abuse or dependence, (4) presence of other life threatening illnesses, (5) the presence of profound cognitive impairment rendering successful participation in CBT or ED impossible, (6) the presence of physical disabilities resulting in an inability to attend treatment sessions and/or inability to participate in telephone interventions (e.g., severe dysarthria), (7) prior or current psychological treatment for chronic pain, (8) two or more documented exacerbations of MS-related symptoms during the past year, and (9) current exacerbation of symptoms defined as sudden onset of symptoms within a 24 hour period. CBT will involve an innovative treatment approach that combines specific training in relevant cognitive and behavior skills targeting management of pain and the negative impacts of pain. The application of these skills for the management of coincident symptoms of MS (e.g., spasticity, fatigue, abnormal sensory experiences) will also be encouraged. ED will involve provision of a broad array of educational material regarding MS and its management, but it will not explicitly inform participants about non-pharmacological strategies for management of pain. Both treatments will involve seven 60 minute, outpatient individual treatment sessions offered every other week, interspersed with five, 30 minute individual telephone sessions (one final face-to-face session will be 30 minute individual telephone sessions will be included) provided by a psychologist and supported by patient education and treatment guides that have been developed for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment arms: CBT/SC or ED/SC. Recruitment rates, session adherence, dropout rates, and participants' ratings of comprehension, treatment credibility, treatment satisfaction and adherence to therapist recommendations will be used to assess feasibility of the treatment and recruitment methods. Multiple standardized measures of each outcome domain of interest will be obtained, including pain severity, disability, affective distress, and quality of life. The analysis of each of the primary and secondary outcome measures (summary measures of pain intensity, pain-related disability, MS-related disability, and emotional functioning) will be by a repeated measures mixed effects model27. The outcome variable in each model will be the changes at each follow-up visit relative to baseline, with the baseline value included as a covariate in the model. Several possible predictors of treatment adherence and outcome will be examined, including participant demographics (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity), disease-relevant variables (e.g.., MS subtype, disease duration, disease severity, level of cognitive functioning), outcome measures (e.g., pain severity, depressive symptom severity), and a measure of motivation for adoption of a self-management approach to chronic pain.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00323271
|United States, Connecticut|
|VA Connecticut Health Care System (West Haven)|
|West Haven, Connecticut, United States, 06516|
|United States, Massachusetts|
|VA Medical Center, Jamaica Plain Campus|
|Boston, Massachusetts, United States, 02130|
|Principal Investigator:||Robert D. Kerns, PhD||VA Connecticut Health Care System (West Haven)|