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Surfactant Lavage vs. Bolus Surfactant in Neonates With Meconium Aspiration

The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion date has passed and the status has not been verified in more than two years.
Verified October 2006 by The Hospital for Sick Children.
Recruitment status was:  Recruiting
Information provided by:
The Hospital for Sick Children Identifier:
First received: April 6, 2006
Last updated: October 16, 2006
Last verified: October 2006
The objective of this pilot study is to examine the feasibility and safety of performing a larger trial to assess outcomes following treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome with surfactant lavage compared to bolus surfactant. Specifically, we will determine if surfactant lavage results in a more rapid improvement in physiologic outcomes (e.g. pulmonary compliance), as well as clinical outcomes (e.g. length of time on mechanical ventilation).

Condition Intervention Phase
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Drug: Bovine Lipid Extract Surfactant (administered by lavage)
Drug: Bovine Lipid Extract Surfactant (administered by bolus)
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Double-Blind
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Surfactant Lavage vs. Bolus Surfactant in Neonates With Meconium Aspiration

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by The Hospital for Sick Children:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • % change in oxygenation indices from baseline to 1 and 6 h following treatment
  • % change in dynamic pulmonary compliance from baseline to 1 and 6 h following treatment
  • % change in pulmonary artery pressure from baseline to 1 and 6 h following treatment
  • measures of efficacy of ventilation and oxygenation at 1 h and 6 h following treatment
  • cardiac function by echocardiography at 6 hours following treatment

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • % change in oxygenation indices, dynamic pulmonary compliance and pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline to 12, 24 and 48 h following treatment
  • measures of efficiency of ventilation and oxygenation at 12, 24 and 48 h following treatment
  • duration of mechanical ventilation, defined as the cumulative time of mechanical ventilation
  • length of time on CPAP
  • length of time with oxygen supplementation
  • length of time on inotropes and maximum inotropic score.
  • need for and length of use of NO
  • need for and length of use of ECMO
  • time to full enteral feeds
  • attainment of exit criteria
  • development of significant pulmonary hemorrhage
  • development of significant intracranial hemorrhage
  • development of tension pneumothorax requiring drainage
  • need for repeat surfactant
  • length of stay in a level III NICU
  • mortality

Estimated Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: April 2006
Detailed Description:

Meconium-stained amniotic fluid occurs in about 5 to 20% of all births in the United States, with meconium aspiration syndrome occuring in approximately 5% of these infants. In this disease process, meconium is believed to mechanically obstruct the airways, causing a chemical pneumonitis and inactivate surfactant. Approximately one-third of these babies need mechanical ventilation and approximately 5% die. Since 1990 surfactant has been the standard of care for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary compliance and gas exchange often improve rapidly after administration of surfactant. Its use has led to significantly reduced mortality rates and improved short-term respiratory function. There is evidence to support its use in other neonatal respiratory disorders where there is dysfunction or inactivation of surfactant. Its use in meconium aspiration syndrome is the most well-studied alternate use to date. The Canadian Pediatric Society's (2005) position statement recommends that infants with meconium aspiration syndrome who are intubated and require more than 50% oxygen should receive exogenous surfactant therapy.

Studies in both animals and humans suggest that surfactant helps in meconium aspiration, either administered as a bolus or as a lavage. There have been no trials to date comparing the efficacy of surfactant lavage to bolus surfactant in human neonates with meconium aspiration or examining the physiologic effects of surfactant, given as either a bolus or lavage, in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome. This study will assess the relative efficacy of these two methods of administering surfactant and their effect on physiologic and clinical outcomes.


Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 24 Hours   (Child)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • infants ≥ 36 weeks gestational age with evidence of meconium aspiration syndrome
  • respiratory support (ventilator or CPAP) within 6 h of birth
  • enrolment within 24 h of birth
  • significant difficulty with oxygenation, as indicated by an oxygenation index (OI) > 15, where OI = (FiO2 x MAP) / PaO2 and MAP is the mean airway pressure
  • presence of an arterial line

Exclusion Criteria:

  • major congenital anomalies
  • known antenatal diagnosis of significant congenital heart disease (diagnosis other than patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus or small ventricular septal defect)
  • infants with a maternal history of oligohydramnios and physical features consistent with the diagnosis
  • surfactant administration prior to enrolment
  • hemodynamic instability defined as intractable hypotension on more than 2 inotropes
  • significant pulmonary hemorrhage, defined as pulmonary hemorrhage in association with a 30% (absolute) increase in FiO2 and radiologic changes consistent with pulmonary hemorrhage
  • significant intracranial hemorrhage, defined as a unilateral or bilateral Grade III or IV intraventricular hemorrhage or a large intracranial, non-intraventricular hemorrhage
  • significant illness meeting ECMO criteria with an OI > 40
  • infants in whom withdrawal of intensive care is likely
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00312507

Contact: Patrick McNamara, MD 416-813-5773

Canada, Ontario
The Hospital for Sick Children Recruiting
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 1X8
Contact: Patrick McNamara, MD    416 813 5773   
Principal Investigator: Patrick McNamara, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Simone Vaz, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Hilary Whyte, MD         
Sub-Investigator: Jaques Belik, MD         
Sponsors and Collaborators
The Hospital for Sick Children
Principal Investigator: Patrick McNamara, MD The Hospital for Sick Children
  More Information Identifier: NCT00312507     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 1000007730
Study First Received: April 6, 2006
Last Updated: October 16, 2006

Keywords provided by The Hospital for Sick Children:
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Bronchoalveolar Lavage

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Meconium Aspiration Syndrome
Lung Injury
Lung Diseases
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Respiration Disorders
Fetal Diseases
Pregnancy Complications
Infant, Newborn, Diseases
Pulmonary Surfactants
Respiratory System Agents processed this record on May 25, 2017