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Azacitidine and Arsenic Trioxide in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00234000
Recruitment Status : Terminated (The study was closed due to poor enrollment)
First Posted : October 6, 2005
Last Update Posted : July 31, 2020
CTI BioPharma
Celgene Corporation
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center

Brief Summary:

RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as azacitidine and arsenic trioxide, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells.

PURPOSE: This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best dose of azacitidine when given together with arsenic trioxide and to see how well they work in treating patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Leukemia Myelodysplastic Syndromes Drug: arsenic trioxide Drug: azacitidine Phase 1

Detailed Description:



  • Determine the maximum tolerated dose of azacitidine when given in combination with arsenic trioxide in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). (Phase I)
  • Determine the safety and tolerability of this regimen in these patients. (Phase I)
  • Determine the major hematologic response (erythroid response) rate in patients with transfusion-dependent lower-risk MDS treated with this regimen. (Phase II)
  • Determine complete and partial remission rates in patients with higher-risk MDS treated with this regimen. (Phase II)
  • Determine the toxicity profile of this regimen in these patients. (Phase I)


  • Determine time to disease progression in patients treated with this regimen. (Phase I and II)
  • Determine the overall and progression-free survival of patients treated with this regimen. (Phase I and II)

OUTLINE: This is an multicenter, open-label, phase I, dose escalation study of azacitidine followed by a phase II study. Patients enrolled in the phase II portion are stratified according to baseline International Scoring System score (lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes [MDS] vs higher-risk MDS).

  • Phase I: Patients receive azacitidine subcutaneously once daily on days 1-5 and arsenic trioxide IV over 1-4 hours on days 1, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, and 25. Courses repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients with stable disease may receive up to 8 courses of therapy. Patients with responding disease may continue to receive study therapy until a major response or a complete remission is achieved.

Cohorts of 3-6 patients receive escalating doses of azacitidine until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) is determined. The MTD is defined as the dose preceding that at which 2 of 3 or 2 of 6 patients experience dose-limiting toxicity.

  • Phase II: Patients receive arsenic trioxide as in phase I and azacitidine as in phase I at one dose level below the MTD determined in phase I.

After the completion of study treatment, patients are followed at 4 weeks and then every 3-12 months for survival.

PROJECTED ACCRUAL: Approximately 3-18 patients will be accrued for the phase I portion of this study. A total of 60 patients (30 per stratum) will be accrued for the phase II portion of this study.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 1 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: A Phase I Multicenter Study of Arsenic Trioxide and Azacitidine in Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Study Start Date : February 2007
Actual Primary Completion Date : February 2009

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Arm 1
see description in intervention
Drug: arsenic trioxide
Each 28-day treatment cycle will include dosing for 2 days per week of ATO. Subjects will recieve 1 mg/mL each dosing day.
Other Name: ATO

Drug: azacitidine
Each 28-day treatment cycle will include dosing the first five days of cycle with Azacitidine. Cohorts of three to six patients will each receive 25, 50, and 75 mg/m2/d injected subcutaneously.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Safety and tolerability as assessed by NCI CTCAE v3.0 (Phase I) [ Time Frame: Every 28 days upto 8 months ]

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Time to disease progression [ Time Frame: Participants are folowed for an average of 1 year after completion of study treatment ]
  2. Overall survival [ Time Frame: Participants are followed every 3-12 months for survival ]

Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Confirmed diagnosis of MDS by standard criteria. Patients within each of the FAB diagnostic groups of RA, RARS, RAEB, RAEBt, and CMML are eligible. For patients with lower-risk MDS only: documented red blood cell dependence, defined as the inability to maintain a hematocrit of > 25% without transfusion support.
  • Adequate marrow iron stores
  • In patients with serum erythropoietin less than 200 IU/mL at screening, failure to have responded to a 2 to 3 month trial of recombinant erythropoietin
  • Serum creatinine or serum bilirubin < 1.5 times the upper limit of normal; higher levels are acceptable if ALT levels < 2 x upper limits of normal
  • Women of childbearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test prior to azacitidine/treatment.
  • Women of childbearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant and should be advised to not father a child while receiving treatment with azacitidine
  • Age > 18 years

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Treatment with growth factors within the 30 days before first treatment with ATO/Azacitidine, except that patients with serum erythropoietin < 200 IU/mL who failed to respond to a trial with EPO are not excluded regardless of the time since last EPO
  • Treatment with cytotoxic or experimental agents within 30 days before first treatment with ATO/Azacitidine
  • Absolute QT interval > 460 msec in the presence of adequate serum potassium and magnesium values
  • Active serious infections that are not controlled by antibiotics
  • Pregnant or lactating women
  • Inability or unwillingness to comply with the treatment protocol, follow-up, or research tests
  • NYHA Class III or IV heart failure
  • Poorly controlled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other serious medical or psychiatric illness that could potentially interfere with the completion of treatment according to this protocol

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00234000

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United States, California
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA
Los Angeles, California, United States, 90095-1781
Sponsors and Collaborators
Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center
CTI BioPharma
Celgene Corporation
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Principal Investigator: Gary J. Schiller, MD Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center
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Responsible Party: Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Identifier: NCT00234000    
Other Study ID Numbers: CDR0000442931
First Posted: October 6, 2005    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: July 31, 2020
Last Verified: August 2012
Keywords provided by Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center:
refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation
refractory anemia with excess blasts
refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts
refractory anemia
chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
de novo myelodysplastic syndromes
previously treated myelodysplastic syndromes
secondary myelodysplastic syndromes
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Myelodysplastic Syndromes
Pathologic Processes
Bone Marrow Diseases
Hematologic Diseases
Precancerous Conditions
Arsenic Trioxide
Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Antineoplastic Agents
Enzyme Inhibitors