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Effects of Pulsatile Insulin Delivery on Diabetic Neuropathy in Patients With Types 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus

This study has been terminated.
Advanced Diabetes Treatment Centers
Global Infusions
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Florida Atlantic University Identifier:
First received: September 27, 2005
Last updated: August 8, 2016
Last verified: August 2016
Diabetic neuropathy is a progressive complication causing serious problems in 25-40% of diabetic patients. Anecdotal reports have indicated improvement with pulsatile IV insulin in patients otherwise resistant to all conventional therapies. Significant complications produce painful peripheral dysesthesias, loss of sensation and gastroparesis. This study is designed to test the effectiveness of pulsatile insulin delivery on diabetic neuropathy.

Condition Intervention Phase
Diabetes Mellitus, With Complications
Procedure: Effect of Pulsatile IV insulin on diabetic neuropathy
Procedure: Effect of Pulsatile IV Insulin on diabetic neuropathy
Phase 2
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Non-Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Single Blind (Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effects of Pulsatile Insulin Delivery on Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by Florida Atlantic University:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Measure the stabilization or reduction of the decline of diabetic neuropathy by pt questionnaires and diagnostic tests [ Time Frame: Measure the stabilization and reduction of complications associated with diabetic neuropathy ]

Enrollment: 152
Study Start Date: February 2004
Study Completion Date: August 2009
Primary Completion Date: August 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Active Comparator: 2
Patients with diagnosed diabetic neuropathy will receive objective baseline testing and follow up testing every six months after the start of Pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy to monitor and assess diabetic neuropathy.
Procedure: Effect of Pulsatile IV Insulin on diabetic neuropathy
Patients diagnosed with diabetic neuropathy will be treated with pulsatile intravenous insulin on a weekly basis. Patient's Endocrinologist will determine the dosage of intravenous insulin to be given each week based upon the patient's response and insulin resistance.
Other Name: Humulog, Humulin, Novolog,
Placebo Comparator: 1
Control patients with diabetic neuropathy will receive objective testing at baseline and every six months to compare and measure results with patients who are receiving pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy.
Procedure: Effect of Pulsatile IV insulin on diabetic neuropathy
Control patients with diagnosed diabetic neuropathy will have objective testing at baseline and every six months to compare and measure results to patients receiving pulsatile intravenous insulin therapy.

Detailed Description:

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a progressive complication causing serious problems in 25%-40% of diabetic patients. Significant complications produce painful peripheral dysesthesias, loss of sensation, and gastroparesis. DN may affect the peripheral motor and sensory nerves in addition to the autonomic nervous system (1-3). Treatment strategies for patients with DN have generally concentrated on pain relief, without addressing the underlying pathophysiology of the disease (4). Anecdotal reports from patients treated with pulsatile insulin for other complications suggest that this treatment may show efficacy in patients with DN. This study is designed to compare patients with DN who receive pulsatile insulin with a control group.

Pulses of IV insulin encourages the glucose metabolism in diabetics to normalize in multiple organs, especially muscle, retina, liver, kidney and nerve endings. The process fundamentally requires the administration of high dose insulin pulses similar to those found in non diabetic humans by their pancreas into the surrounding portal circulation. Oral carbohydrates are given simultaneously to augment the process and prevent hypoglycemia. The process is monitored by frequent measuring of glucose levels and respiratory quotients (RQ). RQ is measured by a metabolic cart which determines the ratio VCO2/ VO2. This ratio is specific for the fuel used at any one time by the body. The glucose levels are monitored to keep glucose levels appropriate and the RQ determines the need to readjust the infusion protocol in each patient for subsequent insulin infusion sessions. The insulin pulses are delivered over 1-hour periods with a 1-hour rest period between each session. Three treatments are given during each treatment day.

The respiratory quotient (RQ) is a measurement of CO2 exhaled and O2 inhaled and is proportionate to the fuel sources being used by the body, primarily the liver over short periods of time. The higher the RQ, the more glucose and less alternative fuel sources are being utilized. Following the RQ change helps determine the effectiveness of physiological insulin administration in increasing anabolic functions in diabetic individuals. By improving the body's glucose metabolism and thereby causing beneficial effects of anabolic factors, the possibility of serious complications can be decreased. In addition the use of oral carbohydrate at the same time along with the physiologic insulin administration stimulates the appropriate gut hormones which augment this effect, a response which cannot be duplicated with intravenous glucose. The purpose of our studies is to determine whether the physiologic administration of insulin along with the augmenting effect of oral carbohydrates will normalize metabolism in diabetic patients and correlate with an improvement in their manifestations of diabetic neuropathy.

The RQ is determined by the use of a metabolic cart. Individuals breathe into a mask for 3-5 minutes after a rest period of 30 or more minutes. The ratio of exhaled volume of CO2 to the inhaled volume of O2 is determined as the RQ. The physiologic range is 0.7 to1.3. Individuals using fat as a primary fuel have a ratio of 0.7, protein or mixed fuels is 0.8-0.9 and carbohydrate is 0.9-1.0. Those taking excessive calories will have RQ's higher than 1.05.

  1. Tesfaye S, Chaturvedi N, Eaton SEM, Ward JD, Manes C, Ionescu-Tirgoviste C, Witte DR, Fuller JH, Vascular Risk factors and Diabetic Neuropathy N Engl J Med 352:341-50, 2005.
  2. Neuropathy Trust, Diabetic Neuropathy:Prevalence,
  3. Potter PJ, Maryniak O, Yamorski R, Jones IC, Incidence of Peripheral Neuropathy in the Contralateral Limb of Persons with Unilateral Amputation due to Diabetes, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 35:335-39, 1998.
  4. Goldstein DJ, Lu Y, Detke MJ, Lee TC, Iyengan , Duloxetine versus Placebo in Patients with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy, Pain 116:109-18, 2005.

Ages Eligible for Study:   20 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • The researchers will include up to 500 patients both male and female between the ages of 20 and 90 diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • All patients were diagnosed by their endocrinologists as having diabetic neuropathy
  • All patients had failed conventional treatment for diabetic neuropathy
  • Taking oral agents and/or insulin for diabetic control
  • Under an Endocrinologists supervision for their diabetes management. Endocrinologist must assess and approve patient for participation in this study
  • Ability to swallow without difficulty
  • Ability to commit to the weekly time requirements associated with the study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • Other causes of complications not related to diabetes
  • Lack of intravenous access
  • Pregnancy
  • Alcohol abuse, drug addiction or the use of illegal drugs
  • Positive HIV
  • Inability to breathe into machine for respiratory quotients
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00228891

United States, Florida
Florida Atlantic University Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences
Boca Raton, Florida, United States, 33431
Sponsors and Collaborators
Florida Atlantic University
Advanced Diabetes Treatment Centers
Global Infusions
Principal Investigator: Betty Tuller, PhD Florida Atlantic University
  More Information

Responsible Party: Florida Atlantic University Identifier: NCT00228891     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: H09-66 NEU1
MH42900 and MH01386
Study First Received: September 27, 2005
Last Updated: August 8, 2016

Keywords provided by Florida Atlantic University:
Pulsatile intravenous insulin
Oral carbohydrate loading
Respiratory Quotients
Diabetic Neuropathy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Diabetic Neuropathies
Diabetes Mellitus
Glucose Metabolism Disorders
Metabolic Diseases
Endocrine System Diseases
Peripheral Nervous System Diseases
Neuromuscular Diseases
Nervous System Diseases
Diabetes Complications
Insulin, Globin Zinc
Hypoglycemic Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs processed this record on May 23, 2017