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Effectiveness of the Nicotine Patch in Suppressing Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms in Women Versus Men - 1

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Identifier:
First received: September 16, 2005
Last updated: January 11, 2017
Last verified: October 2016
Women typically have a more difficult time quitting smoking than men. Little research has been done to understand the differences between men and women that may cause this distinction. This study will assess whether the reduced effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in women is caused by gender differences in the withdrawal suppression induced by nicotine replacement therapy.

Condition Intervention Phase
Smoking Cessation
Tobacco Use Disorder
Drug: nicotine transdermal system
Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Double-Blind
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Effects of Nicotine Patch in Men and Women

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Physiological measures
  • Tobacco withdrawal
  • Behavioral accuracy

Estimated Enrollment: 0
Estimated Study Completion Date: April 2005
Detailed Description:

Smoking can cause a variety of cancers, cardiovascular disorders, and other health problems. Quitting smoking greatly decreases one's risk for these problems. Studies have shown, however, that quitting smoking is more difficult for women than men. Despite that knowledge, little research has been done to try to understand the mechanistic differences between men and women that may cause this distinction. This study will assess whether the reduced effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in women is caused by physical and psychological gender differences in the withdrawal suppression induced by nicotine replacement therapy.

Participants in this double-blind study will attend 4 treatment sessions, each approximately 6.5 hours long and each corresponding to one of four transdermal nicotine replacement patch doses (0, 7, 21, or 42 mg). Sessions will be separated by at least 48 hours to avoid carryover effects. Immediately following arrival at each session, participants' expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels will be measured to verify that the participant has not smoked for at least 8 hours prior to the visit. If the CO level meets the necessary criteria to proceed, a baseline blood sample will be obtained, followed by additional blood samples every 30 minutes. Baseline nicotine withdrawal levels will be assessed using questionnaires. Computerized recordings of physiological responses will also commence and will continue throughout the session. These response measures will include heart rate, percent oxygen saturation, skin temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure. Upon completion of baseline measures, participants will receive a randomly assigned dose of nicotine replacement therapy, in the form of three patches placed on the participants' back. The patches will be removed after 6 hours and the participant will be assessed for any residual effects from the medication.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 55 Years   (Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes

Inclusion Criteria:

  • Smokes at least 15 cigarettes a day for at least 2 years prior to enrollment
  • Has an afternoon carbon monoxide level of at least 15 ppm
  • Agree to use an effective form of contraception for the duration of the study

Exclusion Criteria:

  • History of chronic health problems
  • History of psychiatric conditions
  • History of or active cardiovascular disease
  • History of or active high or low blood pressure
  • History of or active seizure condition
  • History of or active peptic ulcers
  • History of or active diabetes
  • Pregnant
  • Score of greater than 17 on the Beck Depression Inventory
  Contacts and Locations
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Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00218140

United States, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia, United States
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
Principal Investigator: Thomas Eissenberg, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University
  More Information Identifier: NCT00218140     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: NIDA-11082-1
Study First Received: September 16, 2005
Last Updated: January 11, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA):

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Tobacco Use Disorder
Substance-Related Disorders
Chemically-Induced Disorders
Mental Disorders
Ganglionic Stimulants
Autonomic Agents
Peripheral Nervous System Agents
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Nicotinic Agonists
Cholinergic Agonists
Cholinergic Agents
Neurotransmitter Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action processed this record on May 24, 2017