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Single-dose Postpartum Vitamin A Supplementation of Mothers and Neonates (ZVITAMBO)

This study is ongoing, but not recruiting participants.
Sponsor:
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
NCT00198718
First Posted: September 20, 2005
Last Update Posted: March 7, 2017
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Collaborators:
McGill University Health Center
University of Zimbabwe
Harare City Health Department, Harare, Zimbabwe
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
BASF
SARA and Linkages Projects, Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC.
Université de Montréal
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Jean Humphrey, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
  Purpose

The ZVITAMBO PROJECT is testing whether giving mothers and infants a single large dose of vitamin A during the immediate post partum period will reduce:

  1. Infant Mortality Can oral administration of a single 50,000 IU dose of vitamin A to newborn infants, a single 400,000 IU dose of vitamin A given to their lactating mothers, or supplementation of both the mother and infant during the immediate post partum period reduce infant mortality by at least 30%?
  2. Mother to Child HIV transmission during breast feeding Can oral administration of a single large dose of vitamin A given during the immediate post partum period to HIV seropositive lactating women and/or their babies reduce HIV transmission via breast feeding by at least 30%?
  3. Sexually transmitted HIV infection of post partum women Can a single 400,000 IU dose of vitamin A given during the immediate post partum period to HIV seronegative women reduce their likelihood of becoming HIV infected during the post partum year by at least 25%?
  4. Infant feeding in the context of HIV: An operational research study was initiated mid-way through the trial to determine how UNAIDS Guidelines on infant feeding in the context of HIV could be effectively implemented and to measure the impact of such a program on infant feeding practices and postnatal HIV transmission.

Substudies:

Random subsamples of maternal and infant blood were evaluated for anemia and iron status to determine the effect of vitamin A on hematopoiesis and serum and breast milk retinol (mothers) and modified relative dose response test (infants) to determine the effect of vitamin A on vitamin A status.

A subsample of maternal and infant blood samples were evaluated for the presence of HLA-E, HLA-G, and TAP polymorphisms and their relation to prevalent HIV infection in mothers and risk of mother to child transmission.


Condition Intervention Phase
Vitamin A Deficiency HIV Drug: Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate) Phase 2

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Double (Participant, Investigator)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Vitamin A Supplementation of Breast Feeding Mothers and Their Neonates at Delivery: Impact on Mother to Child Transmission of HIV During Lactation, HIV Infection Among Women During the Postpartum Year, and Infant Mortality.

Resource links provided by NLM:


Further study details as provided by Jean Humphrey, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • 1. HIV infection rate among baseline HIV-negative babies born to HIV-positive mothers at 24 months [ Time Frame: By 24 months of age ]
  • 2. Infant mortality rate among all infants, infants born to HIV-negative mothers, and infants born to HIV-positive mothers at 6 months [ Time Frame: by 12 months of age ]
  • 3. HIV infection rates among baseline HIV-negative mothers at 24 months [ Time Frame: by 24 months postpartum ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • 1. HIV infection or death rate among baseline HIV-negative babies born to HIV-positive mothers at 6, 12, and 18 months [ Time Frame: By 24 months of age ]
  • 2. HIV infection or death rate among 6-wk HIV-negative babies born to HIV-positive mothers at 6, 12, 18, 24 months [ Time Frame: by 24 months of age ]
  • 3. Serum and breast milk retinol concentration among women at 12 months [ Time Frame: 12 months postpartum ]
  • 4. Modified relative dose response ratios among infants at 6 wk, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. [ Time Frame: 12 months post partum ]
  • 5. Viral load among HIV-positive women at 6 wk, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. [ Time Frame: 12 months postpartum ]
  • 6. Weight for age among infants at 12 months [ Time Frame: 12 months of age ]
  • 7. Weight for length among infants at 12 months [ Time Frame: 12 months of age ]
  • 8. Length for age among infants at 12 months [ Time Frame: 12 months of age ]

Enrollment: 28220
Study Start Date: November 1997
Estimated Study Completion Date: May 2020
Primary Completion Date: May 2001 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Infant vitamin A Mother vitamin A
Infant received 50,000 IU vitamin A, mother received 400,000 IU vitamin A
Drug: Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate)
Experimental: Infant vitamin A Mother placebo
Infant received 50,000 IU vitamin A, mother received placebo
Drug: Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate)
Experimental: Infant placebo, mother vitamin A
Infant received placebo, mother received 400,000 IU vitamin A
Drug: Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate)
Experimental: Infant received placebo, mother received placebo
Infant and mother received placebo
Drug: Vitamin A (retinyl palmitate)

  Show Detailed Description

  Eligibility

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   Yes
Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • mothers and their neonates delivering at a study recruitment site during the recruitment period

Exclusion Criteria:

  • mother in intensive care unit
  • mother not fully conscious
  • maternal temperature > 39˚
  • Mother is 'nil per mouth' (NPO)
  • Mother is terminally ill as indicated in medical notes
  • Infant is NPO
  • Infant is terminally ill as indicated in medical notes
  • Infant birth weight <1500 g
  • Infant is a twin or triplet delivery
  • Regular place of residence is outside Harare.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00198718


Sponsors and Collaborators
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
McGill University Health Center
University of Zimbabwe
Harare City Health Department, Harare, Zimbabwe
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
BASF
SARA and Linkages Projects, Academy for Educational Development, Washington DC.
Université de Montréal
Investigators
Principal Investigator: Jean H Humphrey, ScD Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Pubic Health
  More Information

Publications:
Zijenah LS, Humphrey J, Nathoo K, Malaba L, Zvandasara P, Mahomva A, Iliff P, Mbizvo MT. Evaluation of the prototype Roche DNA amplification kit incorporating the new SSK145 and SKCC1B primers in detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in Zimbabwe. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Nov;37(11):3569-71.
Zijenah LS, Moulton LH, Iliff P, Nathoo K, Munjoma MW, Mutasa K, Malaba L, Zvandasara P, Ward BJ, Humphrey J; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Timing of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and infant mortality in the first 6 months of life in Harare, Zimbabwe. AIDS. 2004 Jan 23;18(2):273-80.
Malaba LC, Iliff PJ, Nathoo KJ, Marinda E, Moulton LH, Zijenah LS, Zvandasara P, Ward BJ, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Effect of postpartum maternal or neonatal vitamin A supplementation on infant mortality among infants born to HIV-negative mothers in Zimbabwe. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;81(2):454-60.
Iliff PJ, Piwoz EG, Tavengwa NV, Zunguza CD, Marinda ET, Nathoo KJ, Moulton LH, Ward BJ, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO study group. Early exclusive breastfeeding reduces the risk of postnatal HIV-1 transmission and increases HIV-free survival. AIDS. 2005 Apr 29;19(7):699-708.
Piwoz EG, Iliff PJ, Tavengwa N, Gavin L, Marinda E, Lunney K, Zunguza C, Nathoo KJ, Humphrey JH. An education and counseling program for preventing breast-feeding-associated HIV transmission in Zimbabwe: design and impact on maternal knowledge and behavior. J Nutr. 2005 Apr;135(4):950-5.
Miller MF, Stoltzfus RJ, Mbuya NV, Malaba LC, Iliff PJ, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Total body iron in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Zimbabwean newborns strongly predicts anemia throughout infancy and is predicted by maternal hemoglobin concentration. J Nutr. 2003 Nov;133(11):3461-8.
Humphrey JH, Rice AL. Vitamin A supplementation of young infants. Lancet. 2000 Jul 29;356(9227):422-4.
Humphrey J, Iliff P. Is breast not best? Feeding babies born to HIV-positive mothers: bringing balance to a complex issue. Nutr Rev. 2001 Apr;59(4):119-27. Review.
Miller M, Humphrey J, Johnson E, Marinda E, Brookmeyer R, Katz J. Why do children become vitamin A deficient? J Nutr. 2002 Sep;132(9 Suppl):2867S-2880S.
Miller M, Iliff P, Stoltzfus RJ, Humphrey J. Breastmilk erythropoietin and mother-to-child HIV transmission through breastmilk. Lancet. 2002 Oct 19;360(9341):1246-8.
Stoltzfus RJ, Humphrey JH. Vitamin A and the nursing mother-infant dyad: evidence for intervention. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;503:39-47. Review.
Humphrey JH, Quinn T, Fine D, Lederman H, Yamini-Roodsari S, Wu LS, Moeller S, Ruff AJ. Short-term effects of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on viral load and immune response in HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1999 Jan 1;20(1):44-51.
Iliff PJ, Humphrey JH, Mahomva AI, Zvandasara P, Bonduelle M, Malaba LC, Nathoo KJ. Tolerance of large doses of vitamin A given to mothers and their babies shortly after delivery. Nutr Res 1999; 19 (10): 1437-1446.
Matte C, Lacaille J, Zijenah L, Ward B, Roger M. HLA-G and HLA-E polymorphisms in an indigenous African population. The ZVITAMBO Study Group. Hum Immunol. 2000 Nov;61(11):1150-6.
Humphrey JH and Ichord RN: Safety of vitamin A supplementation of postpartum women and young children. Food and Nutrition Bulletin (2001) 22: 311-319.
Matte C, Lacaille J, Zijenah L, Ward B, Roger M; ZVITAMBO Study Group. HLA-G exhibits low level of polymorphism in indigenous East Africans. Hum Immunol. 2002 Jun;63(6):495-501.
Lajoie J, Zijenah LS, Faucher MC, Ward BJ, Roger M; ZVITAMBO Study Group. New transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP-2) polymorphisms in the Shona people of Zimbabwe. Hum Immunol. 2003 Jul;64(7):733-40.
Lajoie J, Zijenah LS, Faucher MC, Ward BJ, Roger M; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Novel TAP1 polymorphisms in indigenous Zimbabweans: their potential implications on TAP function and in human diseases. Hum Immunol. 2003 Aug;64(8):823-9.
Rollins N, Meda N, Becquet R, Coutsoudis A, Humphrey J, Jeffrey B, Kanshana S, Kuhn L, Leroy V, Mbori-Ngacha D, McIntyre J, Newell ML; Ghent IAS Working Group on HIV in Women and Children. Preventing postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast-feeding: modifying infant feeding practices. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Feb 1;35(2):188-95. Review.
Lajoie J, Hargrove J, Zijenah LS, Humphrey JH, Ward BJ, Roger M. Genetic variants in nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E and HLA-G molecules are associated with susceptibility to heterosexual acquisition of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 15;193(2):298-301. Epub 2005 Dec 1.
Miller MF, Humphrey JH, Iliff PJ, Malaba LC, Mbuya NV, Stoltzfus RJ; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Neonatal erythropoiesis and subsequent anemia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative Zimbabwean babies during the first year of life: a longitudinal study. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 3;6:1.
Humphrey JH, Iliff PJ, Marinda E, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, Chidawanyika H, Ward BJ, Nathoo KJ, Malaba LC, Zijenah LS, Zvandasara P, Ntozini R, Mzengeza F, Mahomva A, Ruff A, Mbizvo M, Zunguza C, and the ZVITAMBO Study Group: Impact of single large doses of vitamin A given during the postpartum period to HIV-infected women and their neonates on breastfeeding-associated mother-to-child-transmission of HIV and infant mortality in Zimbabwe. J Infectious Diseases 2006, 193:860-871. Selected for an editorial: Fawzi, WW: The benefits and concerns related to vitamin A supplementation. J Infectious Diseases 2006;193:756-9.
Humphrey JH, Hargrove JW, Malaba LC, Iliff PJ, Moulton LH, Mutasa K, Zvandasara P, Nathoo KJ, Mzengeza F, Chidawanyika H, Zijenah LS, Ward BJ; ZVITAMBO Study Group. HIV incidence among post-partum women in Zimbabwe: risk factors and the effect of vitamin A supplementation. AIDS. 2006 Jun 26;20(10):1437-46.
Zvandasara P, Hargrove JW, Ntozini R, Chidawanyika H, Mutasa K, Iliff PJ, Moulton LH, Mzengeza F, Malaba LC, Ward BJ, Nathoo KJ, Zijenah LS, Mbizvo M, Zunguza C, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Mortality and morbidity among postpartum HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Zimbabwe: risk factors, causes, and impact of single-dose postpartum vitamin A supplementation. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Sep;43(1):107-16.
Miller MF, Stoltzfus RJ, Iliff PJ, Malaba LC, Mbuya NV; Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies Project (ZVITAMBO) Study Group, Humphrey JH. Effect of maternal and neonatal vitamin A supplementation and other postnatal factors on anemia in Zimbabwean infants: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jul;84(1):212-22.
Piwoz EG, Humphrey JH, Tavengwa NV, Iliff PJ, Marinda ET, Zunguza CD, Nathoo KJ, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, Ward BJ. The impact of safer breastfeeding practices on postnatal HIV-1 transmission in Zimbabwe. Am J Public Health. 2007 Jul;97(7):1249-54. Epub 2007 May 30.
Tavengwa NV, Piwoz EG, Iliff PJ, Moulton LH, Zunguza CD, Nathoo KJ, Hargrove JW; ZVITAMBO Study Group, Humphrey JH. Adoption of safer infant feeding and postpartum sexual practices and their relationship to maternal HIV status and risk of acquiring HIV in Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2007 Jan;12(1):97-106.
Piwoz EG, Humphrey JH, Marinda ET, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, Iliff PJ. Effects of infant sex on mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 according to timing of infection in Zimbabwe. AIDS. 2006 Oct 3;20(15):1981-4.
Marinda E, Humphrey JH, Iliff PJ, Mutasa K, Nathoo KJ, Piwoz EG, Moulton LH, Salama P, Ward BJ; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Child mortality according to maternal and infant HIV status in Zimbabwe. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Jun;26(6):519-26.
Humphrey JH, Nathoo KJ, Hargrove JW, Iliff PJ, Mutasa KE, Moulton LH, Chidawanyika H, Malaba LC, Zijenah LS, Zvandasara P, Ntozini R, Zunguza CD, Ward BJ; ZVITAMBO Study Group. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Aug;135(6):933-42. Epub 2007 Jan 12.
Hargrove JW, Humphrey JH, Mutasa K, Parekh BS, McDougal JS, Ntozini R, Chidawanyika H, Moulton LH, Ward B, Nathoo K, Iliff PJ, Kopp E. Improved HIV-1 incidence estimates using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay. AIDS. 2008 Feb 19;22(4):511-8. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f2a960.
Cowan FM, Humphrey JH, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Morrow R, Iliff P. Maternal Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, syphilis and risk of intra-partum transmission of HIV-1: results of a case control study. AIDS. 2008 Jan 11;22(2):193-201.
Lunney KM, Jenkins AL, Tavengwa NV, Majo F, Chidhanguro D, Iliff P, Strickland GT, Piwoz E, Iannotti L, Humphrey JH. HIV-positive poor women may stop breast-feeding early to protect their infants from HIV infection although available replacement diets are grossly inadequate. J Nutr. 2008 Feb;138(2):351-7.
Rawat R, Stoltzfus RJ, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Iliff PJ, Humphrey JH. Influence of inflammation as measured by alpha-1-acid glycoprotein on iron status indicators among HIV-positive postpartum Zimbabwean women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jun;63(6):787-93. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2008.33. Epub 2008 May 28.
Iliff P, Ntozini R, Nathoo K, Piwoz E, Moulton L; ZVITAMBO Study Group, Humphrey J. Making a working clinical diagnosis of HIV infection in infants in Zimbabwe. Trop Med Int Health. 2008 Dec;13(12):1459-69. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02178.x.
Rawat R, Humphrey JH, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Iliff PJ, Stoltzfus RJ. Elevated iron stores are associated with HIV disease severity and mortality among postpartum women in Zimbabwe. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1321-9. doi: 10.1017/S136898000800390X. Epub 2008 Nov 12.
Koyanagi A, Humphrey JH, Moulton LH, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Iliff P, Black RE. Effect of early exclusive breastfeeding on morbidity among infants born to HIV-negative mothers in Zimbabwe. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1375-82. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26810. Epub 2009 Apr 1.
Boily-Larouche G, Iscache AL, Zijenah LS, Humphrey JH, Mouland AJ, Ward BJ, Roger M. Functional genetic variants in DC-SIGNR are associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. PLoS One. 2009 Oct 7;4(10):e7211. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007211.
Lunney KM,* Iliff P, Mutasa K, Ntozini R, Magder LS, Moulton LH, Humphrey JH. Associations between breast milk viral load, mastitis, exclusive breast-feeding, and postnatal transmission of HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Mar 1;50(5):762-9.Selected for an editorial: Kuhn L. Milk mysteries: Why are women who exclusively breast-feed less likely to transmit HIV during breast-feeding? Clin Inf Dis (2010) 50:770-772.
Koyanagi A, Ruff AJ, Moulton LH, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Iliff P, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Postpartum plasma CD4 change in HIV-positive women: implications for timing of HAART initiation. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 May;26(5):547-52. doi: 10.1089/aid.2009.0138.
Hargrove JW, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Mortality among HIV-positive postpartum women with high CD4 cell counts in Zimbabwe. AIDS. 2010 Jan 28;24(3):F11-4.
Hargrove J, Humphrey J; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Short communication: Simplified estimation of the long-term specificity of the BED assay to improve estimates of HIV incidence. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Sep;26(9):977-9. doi: 10.1089/aid.2010.0009.
Williams BG, Hargrove JW, Humphrey JH. The benefits of early treatment for HIV. AIDS. 2010 Jul 17;24(11):1790-1. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833ac860.
Rawat R, Humphrey JH, Mutasa K, Ntozini R, Stoltzfus RJ. Short communication: predicting adverse HIV-related outcomes in a resource-limited setting: use of the inflammation marker α(1)-acid glycoprotein. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Nov;26(11):1171-4. doi: 10.1089/aid.2010.0053. Epub 2010 Oct 26.
Koyanagi A, Humphrey JH, Ntozini R, Nathoo K, Moulton LH, Iliff P, Mutasa K, Ruff A, Ward B; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus-exposed but uninfected, human immunodeficiency virus-infected, and human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed infants in Zimbabwe before availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Jan;30(1):45-51. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181ecbf7e.
Humphrey JH, Marinda E, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, Iliff PJ, Ntozini R, Chidawanyika H, Nathoo KJ, Tavengwa N, Jenkins A, Piwoz EG, Van de Perre P, Ward BJ; ZVITAMBO study group. Mother to child transmission of HIV among Zimbabwean women who seroconverted postnatally: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2010 Dec 22;341:c6580. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c6580.
Kirkwood B, Humphrey J, Moulton L, Martines J. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation and infant survival. Lancet. 2010 Nov 13;376(9753):1643-4. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61895-8. Epub 2010 Oct 13.
Hargrove JW, Humphrey JH, Mahomva A, Williams BG, Chidawanyika H, Mutasa K, Marinda E, Mbizvo MT, Nathoo KJ, Iliff PJ, Mugurungi O; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Declining HIV prevalence and incidence in perinatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Epidemics. 2011 Jun;3(2):88-94. doi: 10.1016/j.epidem.2011.02.004. Epub 2011 Mar 2.
Koyanagi A,* Humphrey JH, Moulton LH, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Iliff P, Ruff AJ, and the ZVITAMBO Study Group. Predictors of postpartum weight loss and predictive value of weight loss on maternal mortality in HIV-positive women of prolonged breastfeeding setting. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses: DOI: 10.1089/AID.2010.0293
Marinda ET, Moulton LH, Humphrey JH, Hargrove JW, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Levin J. In utero and intra-partum HIV-1 transmission and acute HIV-1 infection during pregnancy: using the BED capture enzyme-immunoassay as a surrogate marker for acute infection. Int J Epidemiol. 2011 Aug;40(4):945-54. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyr055. Epub 2011 Apr 5.
Mutasa K, Ntozini R, Prendergast A, Iliff P, Rukobo S, Moulton LH, Ward BJ, Humphrey JH; ZVITAMBO Study Group. Impact of six-week viral load on mortality in HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012 Sep;31(9):948-50.
Gumbo H, Chasekwa B, Church JA, Ntozini R, Mutasa K, Humphrey JH, Prendergast AJ. Congenital and postnatal CMV and EBV acquisition in HIV-infected Zimbabwean infants. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 18;9(12):e114870. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114870. eCollection 2014.
Mupfudze TG, Stoltzfus RJ, Rukobo S, Moulton LH, Humphrey JH, Prendergast AJ; SHINE Trial Team, Jones AD, Manges A, Mangwadu G, Maluccio JA, Mbuya MN, Ntozini R, Tielsch JM. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 7;10(8):e0135227. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135227. eCollection 2015.
Evans C, Chasekwa B, Ntozini R, Humphrey JH, Prendergast AJ. Head circumferences of children born to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in Zimbabwe during the preantiretroviral therapy era. AIDS. 2016 Sep 24;30(15):2323-8. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001196.
Gough EK, Moodie EE, Prendergast AJ, Ntozini R, Moulton LH, Humphrey JH, Manges AR. Linear growth trajectories in Zimbabwean infants. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;104(6):1616-1627. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
Evans C, Chasekwa B, Rukobo S, Govha M, Mutasa K, Ntozini R, Humphrey JH, Prendergast AJ. Cytomegalovirus Acquisition and Inflammation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Exposed Uninfected Zimbabwean Infants. J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 1;215(5):698-702. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw630.
Omoni AO, Ntozini R, Evans C, Prendergast AJ, Moulton LH, Christian PS, Humphrey JH. Child Growth According to Maternal and Child HIV Status in Zimbabwe. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Sep;36(9):869-876. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001574.

Responsible Party: Jean Humphrey, Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00198718     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: (CIDA) (R/C Project 690/M3688)
First Submitted: September 12, 2005
First Posted: September 20, 2005
Last Update Posted: March 7, 2017
Last Verified: March 2017

Keywords provided by Jean Humphrey, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health:
Vitamin A supplementation
HIV
Mother to child transmission of HIV
Breastfeeding

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Vitamin A Deficiency
Night Blindness
Avitaminosis
Deficiency Diseases
Malnutrition
Nutrition Disorders
Vision Disorders
Eye Diseases
Vitamins
Vitamin A
Retinol palmitate
Micronutrients
Growth Substances
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Antioxidants
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action
Protective Agents
Anticarcinogenic Agents
Antineoplastic Agents


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