Efficacy Study of Community-Based Treatment of Serious Bacterial Infections in Young Infants
Approximately one-third of neonatal deaths in developing countries are due to infections acquired through the birth canal and/or exposure to an unclean environment soon after birth. Current World Health Organization recommendations for the management of infants younger than 2 months of age who have serious bacterial infections involve hospitalization and parenteral therapy for at least 10 days with antibiotic regimens containing penicillin or ampicillin combined with an aminoglycoside.However, in many settings throughout the developing world, this is not currently possible, nor is this standard of care likely to be feasible in the near future. Several studies have reported that for a variety of sociocultural reasons many families are unable or unwilling to access hospital-based care and their sick young infants do not get hospitalized, and instead, receive a variety of home-based antibiotic therapies, or none at all. In our community field sites, approximately 70% of families refuse hospital referral for a sick newborn, despite provision of transport.
Thus, there is an urgent need to define the role of community/first-level facility-based care versus hospitalization for the management of young infants with serious bacterial infections, and the potential for community-based parenteral antibiotics as an alternative strategy in resource poor areas with high neonatal mortality rates. Bang and colleagues have demonstrated significant reductions in neonatal mortality from infections in an underdeveloped rural district in Maharashtra, India by a field-based case management approach which used oral cotrimoxazole and intramuscular gentamicin given for 7 days as treatment for neonates with sepsis.
This study is an equivalence randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing once daily IM ceftriaxone injection to once daily IM procaine penicillin and gentamicin injection, to once daily intramuscular gentamicin injection and twice daily oral cotrimoxazole, given for 7 days in babies with clinically-diagnosed possible serious bacterial infection (pneumonia, or sepsis with or without local infections such as skin or umbilical infections) whose families refused referral to a hospital. After supplementary informed consent, patients meeting specific inclusion and exclusion criteria are randomly allocated to one of the three regimens being tested. The study hypothesis is that all 3 regimens will perform equally well in the treatment of sepsis in a first-level facility setting.
Drug: ceftriaxone, procaine penicillin and gentamicin, oral cotrimoxazole and gentamicin
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Randomized Controlled Trial of Intramuscular Ceftriaxone Versus Procaine Penicillin Versus Cotrimoxazole and Gentamicin for Management of Serious Bacterial Infections in Young Infants in Community Settings|
- The primary outcome of success rate will be defined as patient cured or improved with the regimen assigned to, on day 7 of therapy.
- Completion rates
- Adverse events
- Relapse rates
|Study Start Date:||November 2003|
|Estimated Study Completion Date:||December 2005|
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00189384
|Aga Khan University community field sites|
|Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan, 74800|
|Principal Investigator:||Anita KM Zaidi, MBBS, SM||Department of Pediatrics, Aga Khan University|