Breathing Regulation Training for Individuals With Panic Disorder
|Panic Disorder||Behavioral: Raise-CO2 breathing regulation training Behavioral: Lower-CO2 breathing regulation training Behavioral: Control|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Respiratory Therapeutic Procedures in Panic Disorder|
- Breathing regulation [ Time Frame: Measured at Month 6 after completion of therapy ]
|Study Start Date:||March 2005|
|Study Completion Date:||November 2008|
|Primary Completion Date:||November 2008 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Participants will receive raise-CO2 breathing regulation training
Behavioral: Raise-CO2 breathing regulation training
Reverse hyperventilation (defined by low arterial CO2) is often characteristic of individuals with panic disorder. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: raise-CO2 breathing, lower-CO2 breathing, or a control group. Participants in the raise-CO2 group will be taught techniques to recover from hyperventilation faster.
Participants will receive lower-CO2 breathing regulation training
Behavioral: Lower-CO2 breathing regulation training
According to the false suffocation alarm theory, anxiety is experienced when an overly sensitive hypothalamic mechanism is triggered by rising pCO2. Participants in the lower-CO2 group will be taught techniques to reach hyperventilation levels, then switch to breathing techniques that reduce hyperventilation symptoms.
Active Comparator: 3
Participants will receive no breathing regulation training
Participants in the control group will not be taught any breathing techniques but will be included in all assessments.
PD is a serious condition characterized by episodes of rapid heart rate, difficulty breathing, and other symptoms of fear. Explanations for panic attacks have been proposed in two theories: suffocation alarm theory and hyperventilation theory. The suffocation alarm theory claims that panic attacks are due to a "suffocation monitor" in the brain, erroneously signaling a lack of useful air. The hyperventilation theory suggests that stressful events cause people to slightly hyperventilate; some people have panic attacks as a result of their overreaction to the dizziness and lightheadedness they feel from hyperventilation. Both theories note the role of carbon dioxide (CO2) in panic attacks; they suggest that rising CO2 levels in arterial blood act as a panic stimulus. This study will compare two types of breathing regulation techniques based on the panic attack theories to determine which is more effective in reducing panic symptoms in people with PD.
This study will last 4 weeks and will include both people with PD and those without the condition. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: raise-CO2 breathing, lower-CO2 breathing, or a control group. Participants in both the raise-CO2 and lower-CO2 breathing groups will have five sessions of training in which they will learn specific breathing techniques. Participants in the raise-CO2 group will be taught techniques to recover from hyperventilation faster; participants in the lower-CO2 group will be taught techniques to reach hyperventilation levels, then switch to breathing techniques that reduce hyperventilation symptoms. Participants in the control group will not be taught any breathing techniques but will be included in all assessments.
Participants will be assessed at study entry, during each breathing training session, and at Months 1 and 6 after the study. During each assessment, questionnaires and self-report scales will be used to measure cognitive, psychological, and physiological changes related to participants' breathing.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00183521
|United States, California|
|Stanford University & VA Health Care System|
|Palo Alto, California, United States, 94304|
|Principal Investigator:||Walton T. Roth, MD||Stanford University and VA Health Care System|