Effectiveness of Pimozide in Augmenting the Effects of Clozapine in the Treatment of Schizophrenia
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
|Official Title:||Pimozide Augmentation of Clozapine in Schizophrenia|
- Positive Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Variable change from baseline to week 12 ]Severity of positive schizophrenic symptoms The Positive Syndrome Scale of the PANSS is comprised of seven items measuring positive such symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, grandiosity, etc. Each item is scored on a 7 point scale of that particular symptom's severity, ranging from 1 = absent, 2 = minimal, 3 = mild, 4 = moderate, 5 = moderate severe, 6 = severe, and 7 = extreme. The PANSS Positive Subscale seven items has a range of a summed score from 7 (absent) to 49 (extreme psychopathology). Therefore, the higher the score, the more severe the symtpoms.
- Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Total Score [ Time Frame: Variable change from baseline to week 12 ]Severity of negative schizophrenic symptoms, The Negative Syndrome scale is compromised of seven items, each scored on severity with numeric assignments ranging from 1 = absent, 2 = minimal, 3 = mild, 4 = moderate, 5 = moderate severe, 6 = severe, and 7 = extreme. The items which comprise the Negative Syndrome Scale of the PANSS measure things such as emotional withdrawal, apathy, difficulty in abstract thinking, etc. The seven items which comprise the PANSS Negative Subscale has an aggregate range of 7 (absent) to 49 (extreme psychopathology), a higher score indicating more severe symptoms.
- Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) [ Time Frame: variable change from baseline to week 12 ]The Clinical Global Impression-improvement (CGI-improvement) scale is a research rating tool, developed for use in NIMH-sponsored clinical trials provides a brief assessment of the clinician's view of the patient's overall clinical improvement prior to and after initiating a study medication. The CGI-change is rated on a seven point scale ranging from 1= very much improved since the initiation of treatment to 7=very much worse since the initiation of treatment. Therefore, a lower score indicates more improvement in symptoms over time.
|Study Start Date:||October 2004|
|Study Completion Date:||February 2009|
|Primary Completion Date:||February 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Placebo Comparator: placebo
Participants will receive encapsulated placebo made to match active drug
Active drug and placebo will be encapsulated in an identical fashion. The placebo capsule will be made to match in appearance and weight. There will be flexible dosing, allowing a minimum of 1 capsule per day to 4 capsules per day, in order to match the dosing range of the active treatment.
Other Name: Sugar Pill
Participants will receive pimozide flexible dosing
Each capsule of active treatment will contain 2 mg of pimozide. Dosing will be flexible and will range from a minimum of 2 mg per day to 8 mg per day. Dosing will begin at Week 1 with 1 capsule per day. This will be slowly titrated at a rate of 1 capsule per week to a maximum of 4 capsules depending upon clinical response and side effects.
Other Name: Orap
A significant number of schizophrenics exhibit partial or no response to typical antipsychotic medications. Clozapine has been shown to be more effective in treating schizophrenia than typical antipsychotic drugs. However, only an estimated 30% to 60% of people who are unresponsive to treatment with typical antipsychotics will respond to treatment with clozapine. Taking clozapine with pimozide, an antipsychotic drug, can increase clozapine's effects. However, sufficient research on this approach has not yet been performed. This study will assess the effectiveness of pimozide in enhancing the effects of clozapine in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Participants in this double-blind study will receive a stable dose of clozapine for eight weeks prior to enrollment. For the first 4 weeks following enrollment, baseline measurements will be taken. Once a week, participants will report to the study site, where symptom severity, cognitive ability, and functional status, including reading level, will be assessed. In addition, participants will receive a standard medical examination, which will include blood tests and an EKG. Upon completion of this initial phase, participants will be randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: clozapine combined with pimozide; or clozapine combined with placebo. This phase will last for 12 weeks. Study visits will continue to occur weekly, and will be used to re-assess the measurements obtained during baseline. In addition, participants will have an EKG at each study visit for the first 4 weeks of treatment. All baseline measurements will be repeated in Week 12.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00158223
|United States, New York|
|Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai|
|New York, New York, United States, 10029|
|Manhattan Psychiatric Center|
|New York, New York, United States, 10035|
|Pilgrim Psychiatric Center|
|W. Brentwood, New York, United States, 11717|
|Principal Investigator:||Joseph I. Friedman, MD||Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai|