The purpose of this study is to investigate the infectious etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD); a prospective household and case control study for Kawasaki disease will be done. The investigators will enroll Kawasaki disease cases who have at least five of the following manifestations:
- fever for over 5 days
- neck lymphadenopathy
- lip fissure and/or strawberry tongue
- skin rash
- nonpurulent bulbar conjunctivitis
- palm/sole erythema and induration followed by desquamation, or coronary artery aneurysm with less than 5 of the above manifestations (atypical Kawasaki disease)
The KD cases will receive virological (virus isolation from the blood, throat swabs and rectal swabs or stool, gene chip for possible viruses from stored RNA and DNA), bacterial (blood, throat swabs and stool: bacterial culture and stored strain for further toxin or superantigen detection), and serological (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydiae pneumoniae, ASLO, HHV6, EV71, peptide library approach for auto-antibody or pathogen-related antibody, stored serum for further workup) workup. Stored DNA from the blood will also be performed.
Biospecimen Retention: Samples With DNA
Primary Outcome Measures:
- Viral infections associated with Kawasaki disease [ Time Frame: 2014/3 ]
The mean age of the 226 KD cases was 2.07 years, and the male to female ratio was 1.43 (133 boys to 93 girls). Their mean fever duration was 7.5 days with a mean peak temperature of 39.7°C. In addition to the typical symptoms of fever, neck lymphadenopathy, lip fissure and/or strawberry tongue, skin rash, nonpurulent bulbar conjunctivitis, palm/sole erythema, and induration followed by periungual desquamation, these KD cases also exhibited cough (69%), rhinorrhea (58%), and diarrhea (45%). Cases of KD had a significantly higher positive rate of viral isolation in comparison with the control group (7.5% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.02). Compared with the control group, cases of KD were more likely to have overall positive rates of viral PCR (50.4% vs. 16.4%, p < 0.001) and for various viruses including enterovirus (16.8% vs. 4.4%, p < 0.001), adenovirus (8.0% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.007), human rhinovirus (26.5% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), and coronavirus (7.1% vs. 0.9%, p = 0.003).
Blood, throat swab, nasopharyngeal aspiration, and rectal swab will be obtained during acute illness and at convalescence (about 2 weeks after discharge). These specimens will be processed for viral isolation, bacterial culture and toxin detection, PCR, subtractive cloning, VIDISCA, gene chips, peptide library, cytokine/chemokine measurement, antibody detection for specific pathogens, etc. Questionnaire for contact history and clinical symptoms will be performed.
| Estimated Enrollment:
| Study Start Date:
| Estimated Study Completion Date:
| Estimated Primary Completion Date:
||December 2018 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)