The primary objectives of this study is to identify a safe, tolerable dose of pentoxifylline in children with cerebral malaria and to establish an acceptable pentoxifylline dosage regimen for use in multi center Phase II and Phase III studies.
| Estimated Enrollment:
| Study Start Date:
| Estimated Study Completion Date:
This is an open, prospective, dose-escalating study, designed to elucidate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of pentoxifylline in children of the ages greater than/equal to 9 months and less than/equal to 96 months with cerebral malaria. The study is designed to evaluate pentoxifylline as adjunct therapy in severe pediatric malaria by evaluating its toxicity and associated adverse events, and by establishing both an acceptable dose and the associated pharmacokinetic profile. The pharmacodynamic effects of four different dose levels (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/24 hours) will be accessed on the following biological, immunological, and parasitological parameters: cerebral blood flow velocity, tumor necrosis factor concentration, rosetting, coma resolution time, parasite clearance time, and fever clearance time. Due to the variability observed in the biological, immunological, and parasitological parameters under scrutiny, a control group of ten patients will be intercalated in the study (4 patients prior to enrollment of the first pentoxifylline recipient, 2 patients in-between each of the 3 dose escalations). As there is no information about the relationship of treatment duration to biological, immunological, and parasitological effects, treatment will continue for 72 hours, by which time peripheral parasitemia will have cleared in the majority of patients. The selection of the pentoxifylline dosage regimen for the larger, multi center Phase II and Phase III studies will be made on the basis of the maximum tolerated dose (based on clinical and laboratory observations) which minimizes the dose-related side-effects and adverse events (based on pharmacokinetics) while permitting maximum biological, immunological, and/or parasitological effects (pharmacodynamics).