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Toremifene Citrate for Prevention of Bone Fractures in Men With Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
GTx Identifier:
First received: August 9, 2005
Last updated: November 13, 2013
Last verified: November 2013
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) treatment for prostate cancer decreases the natural hormone called testosterone. This type of therapy is very effective for the treatment of prostate cancer. However, one of the side effects is bone loss or thinning of the bones that can lead to osteoporosis and an increased risk of bone fractures (breaking of the bones). The purpose of the study is to determine whether or not the addition of toremifene citrate (the study drug) to therapy can prevent or decrease the number of bone fractures and to evaluate its impact on side effects associated with testosterone reduction therapy.

Condition Intervention Phase
Prostate Cancer
Drug: Toremifene Citrate
Phase 3

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment
Masking: Double-Blind
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter Efficacy and Safety Study of Toremifene Citrate for Prevention of Bone Fractures in Men With Prostate Cancer on Androgen Deprivation Therapy

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by GTx:

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of subjects at 24 months with at least one new vertebral fracture determined by blinded central review of radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • Percentage of subjects with at least one new or worsening vertebral fracture at 24 months
  • Percentage of subjects with a clinical fragility fracture at 12 and 24 months
  • Percent change from baseline in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan at 24 months

Estimated Enrollment: 1200
Study Start Date: October 2003
Study Completion Date: November 2007
Primary Completion Date: November 2007 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)

Ages Eligible for Study:   50 Years and older   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

To be eligible for participation in this study, subjects must meet all of the following criteria (minor deviations may be discussed with the medical monitor for possible inclusions):

  • Give voluntary, signed informed consent in accordance with institutional policies
  • Be male, aged ≥ 50 years
  • Have histologically documented prostate cancer. Subjects with metastatic prostate cancer may still be considered for the study as long as they are not disqualified by other inclusion/exclusion criteria and there is a reasonable expectation that their medical condition will not interfere with the objectives of the study and that adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol can be achieved for the full 24-month duration of the study.
  • Have been on:

    • ADT treatment (either luteinizing hormone-releasing agonist [LHRHa] or orchiectomy) for at least 6 months; Or
    • Intermittent LHRHa for at least the preceding 12 months is acceptable, but subjects must be maintained on uninterrupted treatment for the duration of this study once they are randomized into the study.
  • Be aged ≥ 70 years or have BMD of lumbar spine or femoral neck at or below the specified thresholds for study entry:

    • Hologic BMD (g/cm2): L1-L4 - 0.926; Femoral neck - 0.717
    • Lunar BMD (g/cm2): L1-L4 - 1.050; Femoral neck - 0.840
  • Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤ 4 ng/mL
  • Have a Zubrod performance status ≤ 1
  • Subject weight < 300 lbs (weight limitation of DEXA equipment)
  • Agree to complete a daily diary of medication intake and to provide tablet containers for accurate counts
  • Agree to use an effective method of contraception, if the partner is of childbearing age, while on study
  • Have adequate bone marrow, liver and renal function:

    • White blood cell (WBC) count ≥ 3,000/mm3;
    • Platelet count ≥ 100,000/mm3;
    • Bilirubin ≤ 1.5 mg/dL;
    • AST and ALT < 2x upper limit of normal;
    • Serum creatinine ≤ 2.0 mg%.

Exclusion Criteria:

Subjects with any of the following will not be eligible for enrollment:

  • Taking bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), parathyroid hormone (PTH), Forteo® (teriparatide), calcitonin, or oral glucocorticoids within 45 days of randomization
  • Have any disease or condition that would preclude an accurate evaluation of radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spine (at least eight evaluable vertebrae in the range T4 to L4) [for example, severe scoliosis, or sequelae of orthopedic procedures or other surgery]
  • Have > 4 vertebral fragility fractures
  • Have any history of other carcinomas within the last 5 years (except nonmelanoma cutaneous malignancies and superficial bladder cancer with no evidence of recurrence which will not be excluded). NOTE: Patients with cancers other than nonmelanoma cutaneous malignancies and superficial bladder cancer with no evidence of tumor recurrence for at least 5 years after definitive treatment will not be excluded from this study.
  • Have Paget's disease of bone
  • Have active systemic viral, bacterial or fungal infections requiring treatment
  • Have, in the judgment of the investigator, a clinically significant concurrent illness or psychological, familial, sociological, geographical or other concomitant condition that would not permit adequate follow-up and compliance with the study protocol for the full 24-month duration of the study
  • Received treatment with other investigational agents within 30 days prior to randomization
  • Taking finasteride (e.g., Proscar®), dutasteride (e.g., Avodart®), Danocrine® (danazol) or testosterone-like supplements, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) [subject is eligible if he stops these agents for a total washout of 45 days prior to randomization and agrees not to use these agents for the duration of the study]
  • Taking herbal medicine or dietary supplements for prostate health, such as PC SPES and saw palmetto (also known as Serenoa repens) [subject is eligible if he stops these agents for a total washout of 45 days prior to randomization and agrees not to use these agents for the duration of the study]. Lycopene and selenium are not prohibited and no washout is required.
  • Have a history of thromboembolic disease including deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus
  • Have a history of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis
  • Have received prior treatment with toremifene
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00129142

  Show 155 Study Locations
Sponsors and Collaborators
Study Director: Mitchell Steiner, M.D. GTx
  More Information

Publications automatically indexed to this study by Identifier (NCT Number): Identifier: NCT00129142     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: G300203
Study First Received: August 9, 2005
Last Updated: November 13, 2013

Keywords provided by GTx:
Prostate cancer
Bone Loss
Androgen Deprivation Therapy

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Fractures, Bone
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases
Wounds and Injuries
Bone Diseases, Metabolic
Bone Diseases
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Citric Acid
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic Agents
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Hormone Antagonists
Hormones, Hormone Substitutes, and Hormone Antagonists
Physiological Effects of Drugs
Bone Density Conservation Agents
Calcium Chelating Agents
Chelating Agents
Sequestering Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action processed this record on May 25, 2017