Short-term Behavioral Effects of Cholesterol Therapy in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
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|ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00114634|
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : June 16, 2005
Results First Posted : April 9, 2014
Last Update Posted : January 29, 2016
This 10-week study will evaluate and compare behavior changes in children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) who are taking cholesterol supplementation versus those who are not on cholesterol supplementation. SLOS is a genetic disorder that affects the development of children both before and after birth. An enzyme deficiency in these children results in low levels of cholesterol, which can cause a variety of birth defects and behavioral problems. Typical abnormal physical features of patients include a small head, drooping eyelids, small upturned nose, small chin, cleft palate, heart defects, and extra fingers or toes.
Children between 5 and 17 with mild SLOS who do not have a history of egg allergy or intolerance may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with a questionnaire about the patient's age, genotype (if known), sterol levels, symptoms, current treatment and medical history.
Children participate in two 2-week study phases. Between the study phases the children will take 150 mg/kg daily of a cholesterol preparation typically used to supplement cholesterol in patients in SLOS studies at NIH. In the study phases, the participants are randomly assigned to take either egg yolk or an egg yolk substitute, such as Egg Beaters, that does not contain cholesterol. The study is done at the participant's home, and the cholesterol supplementation and egg/egg substitute are sent to the home each day with instructions on how to take them.
The caretakers can stop the study phases after four days if behavior problems occur.
The children's caretakers fill out a standard behavioral questionnaire, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The questionnaire is designed to assess the effects of treatment in mentally impaired persons.
|Condition or disease||Intervention/treatment||Phase|
|Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome||Dietary Supplement: Egg yolk preparation with cholesterol Dietary Supplement: Egg substitute, without cholesterol||Phase 2|
Smith-Lemli- Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive genetic condition caused by a deficiency of the enzyme 3beta-hydroxysterol delta(7)- reductase (DHCR7). DHCR7 is the final enzyme in the sterol synthetic pathway and converts 7- dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) to cholesterol. This results in low cholesterol and elevated 7DHC levels. SLOS has a wide phenotypic spectrum. Mildly affected individuals may have subtle dysmorphic features along with learning and behavioral disabilities. Typical clinical manifestations include microcephaly, ptosis, anteversion of the nostrils, micrognathia, high arched or cleft palate, congenital heart defects, clinodactyly, post- axial polydactyly, and 2-3 toe syndactyly. More severely affected individuals have multiple congenital anomalies, may be miscarried, stillborn, or die within the first few weeks of life.
Dietary cholesterol supplementation in children with SLOS is reported to improve behavior, growth and nutritional status. Based upon observational studies, the behavioral changes reported with dietary cholesterol supplementation occur rapidly and appear to be reversible. Parental reports of improved behavior could be influenced by a placebo effect. Thus, we are proposing a blinded study to compare behavioral changes while the patient is on cholesterol supplementation (egg yolk) versus no cholesterol supplementation (egg substitute).
The objectives of this study are:
- To quantitatively evaluate behavior, in a blinded study, of SLOS children on and off dietary cholesterol supplementation.
- To quantitatively evaluate behavior in SLOS children treated with egg yolk compared to synthetic dietary cholesterol supplementation.
Completed study has been published. Tierney, E., Conley, S.K., Goodwin, H., Porter, F.D. (2010) Analysis of short-term behavioral effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. Part A. 152A: 91-95 PMID: 20014133
|Study Type :||Interventional (Clinical Trial)|
|Actual Enrollment :||13 participants|
|Intervention Model:||Crossover Assignment|
|Masking:||Triple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator)|
|Official Title:||Short-Term Behavioral Effects of Cholesterol Therapy in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome|
|Study Start Date :||June 2005|
|Actual Primary Completion Date :||February 2009|
|Actual Study Completion Date :||February 2009|
U.S. FDA Resources
Experimental: Egg yolk preparation with cholesterol
Dietary cholesterol in the form of liquid egg yolk
Dietary Supplement: Egg yolk preparation with cholesterol
Egg yolk preparation with cholesterol
Placebo Comparator: Egg yolk preparation without cholesterol
No dietary cholesterol supplementation (egg substitute) Papetti Foods "Better 'n Eggs" egg substitute
Dietary Supplement: Egg substitute, without cholesterol
Placebo control. Egg substitute, without cholesterol
- Hyperactivity Sub-scale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C). [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) is a measure used to identify treatment efficacy among intellectually impaired individuals. ABC Subscale IV (Hyperactivity) has 16 items, each can be rated from 0 to 3, with 0 equal to not at all a problems, one the problem is the behavior but slight in degree, to the problem is moderately serious, 3 the problem is severe in degree. For this subscale, score can go from 0 - 48. The higher the score, the worse the hyperactivity. The comparison in this study was made between the blinded phases when patients received either egg yolk (treated, +cholesterol) or egg substitute (untreated, -cholesterol). Order was randomized.
- ABC Irritability Sub-scale [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]ABC Subscale I (Irritability) has 15 items, each can be rated from 0 to 3, with 0 equal to not at all a problem, 1 the problem is the behavior but slight in degree, 2 the problem is moderately serious, 3 the problem is severe in degree. For this subscale, score can go from 0 - 45
- ABC Lethargy Sub-scale [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]ABC Subscale II (Lethargy) has 16 items, each can be rated from 0 to 3, with 0 equal to not at all a problems, 1 the problem is the behavior but slight in degree,2 the problem is moderately serious, 3 the problem is severe in degree. For this subscale, score can go from 0 - 48.
- ABC Stereotypy Sub-scale [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]ABC Subscale III (Stereotypy) has 7 items, each can be rated from 0 to 3, with 0 equal to not at all a problems, 1 the problem is the behavior but slight in degree, 2 the problem is moderately serious, 3 the problem is severe in degree. For this subscale, score can go from 0 - 21.
- ABC Inappropriate Behavior Sub-scale [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]ABC Subscale V (Inappropriate speech) has 4 items, each can be rated from 0 to 3, with 0 equal to not at all a problems, 1 the problem is the behavior but slight in degree, 2 the problem is moderately serious, 3 the problem is severe in degree. For this subscale, score can go from 0 - 12.
- ABC Total Score [ Time Frame: 2 weeks ]ABC total score includes all the questions from subscales, with range of 0 to 174. Higher the score , the greater the problem.
To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00114634
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|
|Principal Investigator:||Forbes D Porter, MD||NIH/NICHD|