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Promoting Smoking Cessation and Reducing Weight Gain

This study has been completed.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:
First Posted: June 10, 2005
Last Update Posted: May 13, 2016
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details.
Information provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
To test whether a behavioral intervention could indeed achieve the dual goals of promoting smoking cessation and minimizing weight gain.

Condition Intervention
Cardiovascular Diseases Heart Diseases Behavioral: smoking cessation Behavioral: reducing diet

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Allocation: Randomized
Primary Purpose: Prevention

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI):

Study Start Date: January 1995
Study Completion Date: August 1999
Detailed Description:


When the study began in 1995, more females were initiating cigarette smoking, and a growing proportion cited fear of gaining weight as a major reason for refusing to even attempt quitting smoking. It had not yet been possible, however, to prevent post- cessation weight gain through dieting or behavioral treatment without undermining abstinence from smoking. The investigators proposed that prior interventions had been unsuccessful because: (a) their weight management interventions were too complex; (b) the programs thwarted a need of the patient in nicotine withdrawal to eat hedonically appealing, high-carbohydrate snacks; and (c) the programs heightened patients' emphasis on weight control at the expense of their emphasis on smoking cessation by asking them to initiate weight control before or simultaneously with quitting smoking.


The investigators collected pilot data on a promising 16-week intervention that they called the LATE WEIGHT PLAN because it emphasized smoking cessation for the first half of treatment and integrated weight management for the last half. The weight management module included a pre-packaged meal plan; high-carbohydrate, low-fat snacks; and low-intensity aerobic exercise. All patients continued in the weight management phase of treatment, regardless of whether they had succeeded in quitting smoking or were preparing to make new quit attempts. Based on pilot findings, the investigators estimated the point prevalence of smoking cessation for the LATE WEIGHT PLAN group to be 74% at the end of treatment, with weight gain less than 5 lb. An EARLY WEIGHT PLAN group controlled for the timing of the intervention, using the same target quit smoking date and 16 week program but integrating the weight management module into the first 8 weeks of treatment. Like others, they found that EARLY weight management efforts, while they may have prevented weight gain, apparently did so at some cost to smoking cessation, which they estimated to be 42% at 4 months. Finally, a CESSATION ONLY group controlled for the presence of a weight management intervention, by dealing exclusively with smoking cessation for the entire 16 week program. The CESSATION ONLY group had attained the worst outcome in terms of weight control and an intermediate outcome in terms of abstinence at the end of treatment (50%). By randomizing 315 female smokers to the three treatments and comparing abstinence and weight gain after 4 months of treatment and 6 month follow-up (10 months), they tested whether a behavioral intervention could indeed achieve the dual goals of promoting smoking cessation and minimizing weight gain.

The study completion date listed in this record was obtained from the "End Date" entered in the Protocol Registration and Results System (PRS) record.


Information from the National Library of Medicine

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Ages Eligible for Study:   up to 100 Years   (Child, Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Female
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
A total of 315 female smokers.
  Contacts and Locations
Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT00113711

Sponsors and Collaborators
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
OverallOfficial: Bonnie Spring University of Illinois at Chicago
  More Information

Persky I, Spring B, Vander Wal JS, Pagoto S, Hedeker D. Adherence across behavioral domains in treatment promoting smoking cessation plus weight control. Health Psychol. 2005 Mar;24(2):153-60.
Sánchez-Johnsen LA, Spring BJ, Sommerfeld BK, Fitzgibbon ML. Weight concerns and smoking in Black and White female smokers. Addict Behav. 2005 Mar;30(3):601-5.
Sánchez-Johnsen LA, Fitzgibbon ML, Ahluwalia JS, Spring BJ. Eating pathology among Black and White smokers. Eat Behav. 2005 Feb;6(2):127-36.
Spring B, Pagoto S, Pingitore R, Doran N, Schneider K, Hedeker D. Randomized controlled trial for behavioral smoking and weight control treatment: effect of concurrent versus sequential intervention. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004 Oct;72(5):785-96.
Doran N, Spring B, McChargue D, Pergadia M, Richmond M. Impulsivity and smoking relapse. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Aug;6(4):641-7.
Katsutani N, Shionoya H. Drug-specific immune responses induced by procainamide, hydralazine and isoniazid in guinea-pigs. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1992 May;14(4):673-9.
Cook JW, Spring B, McChargue D, Hedeker D. Hedonic capacity, cigarette craving, and diminished positive mood. Nicotine Tob Res. 2004 Feb;6(1):39-47.
Spring B, Pagoto S, McChargue D, Hedeker D, Werth J. Altered reward value of carbohydrate snacks for female smokers withdrawn from nicotine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Sep;76(2):351-60.
Spring B, Pingitore R, McChargue DE. Reward value of cigarette smoking for comparably heavy smoking schizophrenic, depressed, and nonpatient smokers. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;160(2):316-22.
Johnsen L, MacKirnan D, Spring B, Pingitore R, Sommerfeld BK. Smoking as subculture? Influence on Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women's attitudes toward smoking and obesity. Health Psychol. 2002 May;21(3):279-87.
Richmond M, Spring B, Sommerfeld BK, MeChargue D. Rumination and cigarette smoking: a bad combination for depressive outcomes? J Consult Clin Psychol. 2001 Oct;69(5):836-40.
Borrelli B, Spring B, Niaura R, Kristeller J, Ockene JK, Keuthen NJ. Weight suppression and weight rebound in ex-smokers treated with fluoxetine. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999 Feb;67(1):124-31.

Publications automatically indexed to this study by ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier (NCT Number):
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00113711     History of Changes
Other Study ID Numbers: 184
R01HL052577 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Submitted: June 9, 2005
First Posted: June 10, 2005
Last Update Posted: May 13, 2016
Last Verified: June 2005

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Cardiovascular Diseases
Heart Diseases

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