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Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Locate and Characterize Prostate Cancer

This study has been completed.
Information provided by:
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC) Identifier:
First received: April 30, 2004
Last updated: January 24, 2017
Last verified: July 21, 2016

This study will examine the usefulness of an imaging procedure called dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for localizing and characterizing prostate cancer. For this test, a medicine is injected into a vein and the MRI measures how the medicine flows through the prostate gland. The measurements provide information about the blood vessels in the prostate gland, which provides other information about the cancer. Several needle biopsies are performed during the procedure, and the results of the biopsies are compared with the information from the DCE-MRI.

Men 18 years of age and older with suspected or confirmed prostate cancer may be eligible for this study. Candidates are screened with a medical history and physical examination, blood test, and review of tumor pathology.

Participants undergo DCE-MRI and needle biopsies of the prostate. The day before and the morning of the procedure, patients are given an antibiotic called Levofloxacin. They also have a small enema the morning of the test. A local anesthetic is then given in the area around the prostate to numb the tissue and decrease any discomfort from the procedure. A tube is placed in the rectum to obtain better pictures of the prostate gland during the imaging. During the scan, the patient may be asked to breathe air that contains higher concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide than are in room air. The MRI scans guide the physician in selecting areas of the prostate to biopsy. For each biopsy, a needle is placed through the rectum into the prostate gland. When the needle is in place, a small tissue sample is withdrawn. This procedure is repeated until 4 to 10 biopsies are taken. During the procedure, which lasts about 1 hour, the patient lies on his stomach on a stretcher.

Patients who are planning to undergo surgery or radiation treatment for their cancer at the NCI may have up to four 1-mm non-reactive gold markers placed in the prostate during the DCE-MRI procedure. The markers are left in place to help target the radiation treatments and to show where the biopsies were taken if the prostate is removed.

At the end of the procedure, the patient is moved to a bed to recover and may get up and urinate after about 30 to 60 minutes. After a period of observation, the patient is discharged home with a dose of antibiotic to take the next day.

Some patients may be asked to repeat the MRI and biopsy procedure during or after their treatment for prostate cancer to help investigators learn whether the MRI test is still helpful after treatment. Repeat testing is optional.

Condition Intervention
Prostate Cancer
Procedure: Biopsy

Study Type: Interventional
Study Design: Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: No masking
Primary Purpose: Diagnostic
Official Title: A Prospective Histopathologic Study of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI for Prostate Cancer Delineation and Characterization With the APT-MRI System

Resource links provided by NLM:

Further study details as provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):

Primary Outcome Measures:
  • Correlation between the DCE-MRI kinetic parameter Ktrans and histopathologic determination of malignancy at corresponding biopsy sites within the prostate gland. [ Time Frame: Post procedure ]

Secondary Outcome Measures:
  • To further determine the feasibility and tolerability of MRI-guided prostate biopsy with the APTMRI system. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To determine the ability of the APT-MRI system to target all prostatic subzones and all sites suspicious of malignancy within the prostate gland. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To obtain further data on the tissue targeting accuracy of the APT-MRI system for needle biopsy [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To determine if other DCE-MRI contrast kinetic parameters (Vf, amplitude, slope, and time to peak) correlate with the histopathologic determination of malignancy based on MRI-guided needle biopsies of the prostate gland. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To determine if the subjective determination of malignant sites within the prostate gland based on DCE-MR images, T2W images, or both, correlates with the histopathologic determination of malignancy based on MRI-guided needle biopsies. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To compare DCE-MRI data with the microvessel density of corresponding tissues. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To compare DCE-MRI data with the microarray and proteomic profiles of corresponding tissues. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To compare the histopathologic diagnosis and Gleason grade obtained with MRI-guided biopsies with prior TRUS-guided biopsy results. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To compare the Gleason grade of MR-guided biopsies with the Gleason grade of prostatectomy specimens. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]
  • To compare DCE-MRI results with serum PSA levels and serum and/or urine proteomic profiles acquired at the time of image acquisition. [ Time Frame: completion of study ]

Enrollment: 20
Study Start Date: April 28, 2004
Study Completion Date: February 21, 2007
Arms Assigned Interventions
Experimental: Biopsy
Procedure: Biopsy
Patients will then undergo endorectal coil MR imaging of the prostate gland, including conventional anatomic imaging and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI During MR imaging, 4 to 10 needle biopsy cores of the prostate will be obtained using a trans-rectal needle guide system (APT-MRI).

Detailed Description:

Accurate spatial delineation and biologic characterization of tumors within the prostate gland by non-invasive means, such as MR imaging, stands to impact the spectrum of prostate cancer care. At present there are no imaging techniques that can accurately delineate tumor extent. With dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), signal intensity can be plotted over time for various regions of interest within the prostate, and reflect physiological parameters such as tissue perfusion, blood flow, vascular density and vascular permeability. Preliminary studies suggest that malignant tumors demonstrate a more rapid and intense uptake of contrast, as well as a more rapid washout compared with the normal peripheral zone. However, histopathologic confirmation of these findings has been limited.

This study strives to establish a correlation between K(trans) calculated from DCE-MRI data and the corresponding tissue histopathology. This will be achieved by acquiring needle biopsies with the APT-MRI (Access to Prostate Tissue under MRI-guidance) system in accurate spatial and temporal reference to DCE-MR images. The study will accrue 80 patients over a 2-year period with the primary analysis relating K(trans) to the probability of malignancy using Generalized Estimating Equations.

Patients who have undergone a TRUS-guided biopsy for suspected prostate cancer or patients with a pathological diagnosis of prostate cancer will be potential candidates for enrollment. Prior to the procedure, blood will be drawn and urine collected to measure PSA level and for protein profiling. Patients will then undergo endorectal coil MR imaging of the prostate gland, including conventional anatomic imaging and dynamic-contrast-enhanced MRI. During MR imaging, 4 to 10 needle biopsy cores of the prostate will be obtained using a trans-rectal needle guide system (APT-MRI). The ability to obtain prostate biopsy cores from all prostatic subzones and sites of interest will be documented, as will the overall procedure time and acute toxicities associated with the procedure. Histopathology and laboratory results of needle core biopsies will be compared to corresponding DCE-MRI measurements, prior TRUS-biopsy results, and/or prostatectomy specimens. This procedure may be repeated at a later time through the patient's course of observation, therapy, or follow up.

This is not a therapeutic trial. Patients admitted to this protocol will only be admitted to other protocols of experimental treatments if they also specifically meet the eligibility criteria for those protocols. Patients may derive benefit from the MRI-guided biopsy, which will be stated in the protocol consent document.


Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years to 90 Years   (Adult, Senior)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   Male
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No
  • ECOG performance status 0 or 1.
  • Patients with a TRUS-guided biopsy for suspected prostate cancer in the past twelve months, or patients with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland and who have not received definitive local therapy.
  • Age greater than or equal to 18 years.
  • Informed consent: All patients must sign a document of informed consent indicating their understanding of the investigational nature and risks of the study before any protocol related studies are performed.


  • Contraindication to trans-rectal biopsy:
  • Bleeding disorder;
  • PT/PTT greater than or equal to 1.5 times the upper limit of normal;
  • Platelets less than or equal to 50K;
  • Active anticoagulation;
  • Severe immunocompromise;
  • Severe hemorrhoids;
  • Surgically absent rectum.
  • Contraindication to MRI:
  • Patients weighing greater than 136 kgs (weight limit for the scanner tables);
  • Allergy to MR contrast agent;
  • Patients with pacemakers, cerebral aneurysm clips, shrapnel injury or implantable electronic devices not compatible with MRI.
  • Allergy to local anesthetics or quinolone antibiotics.
  • Patients with a known diagnosis of prostate cancer and a known treatment plan to proceed to prostatectomy if the result of the biopsy would not affect surgical management.
  • Other medical conditions deemed by the PI or associates to make the patient ineligible for protocol procedures.
  Contacts and Locations
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies.

Please refer to this study by its identifier: NCT00082147

United States, Maryland
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892
Sponsors and Collaborators
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Principal Investigator: Kevin A Camphausen, M.D. National Cancer Institute (NCI)
  More Information

Additional Information:
Publications: Identifier: NCT00082147     History of Changes
Obsolete Identifiers: NCT00085514
Other Study ID Numbers: 040171
Study First Received: April 30, 2004
Last Updated: January 24, 2017

Keywords provided by National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC):
Fiducial Marker
Prostate Cancer

Additional relevant MeSH terms:
Prostatic Neoplasms
Genital Neoplasms, Male
Urogenital Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Genital Diseases, Male
Prostatic Diseases processed this record on March 30, 2017