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Indicated Prevention With At-Risk Gamblers

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT00078273
Recruitment Status : Completed
First Posted : February 24, 2004
Last Update Posted : December 11, 2013
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Mary Larimer, University of Washington

Brief Summary:
The overall purpose of this study is to reduce the prevalence of gambling risk in college students by evaluating the effectiveness of different treatments in reducing gambling behavior and related negative consequences.

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Gambling Pathological Gambling Problem Gambling Behavioral: Personalized Feedback Intervention Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Phase 2

Detailed Description:
Participants in this study will be randomly assigned to a personal feedback intervention (PFI) or assessment only for 3 years. The PFI intervention will be delivered in a single session. Measures will include the NORC DSM Screen for Problem Gambling (NODS), the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Gambling Quantity and Perceived Norms, Perceived Injunctive Gambling Norms, Gambling Problems Index, gambling frequency, attitudes and beliefs about gambling and self-control, readiness to change, gambling expectancies, gambling motives, gambling risk perception, psychiatric symptoms, assertiveness, coping skills, substance use, alcohol-related problems, self-determination, and social desirability.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Actual Enrollment : 225 participants
Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Prevention
Official Title: Indicated Prevention With At-Risk Gamblers
Study Start Date : July 2003
Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2003
Actual Study Completion Date : July 2003

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Arm Intervention/treatment
No Intervention: Assessment Only Control
Completed Baseline and 6 month follow-up surveys only.
Experimental: Personalized Feedback Intervention
See Intervention Description
Behavioral: Personalized Feedback Intervention
Sessions lasted for 60-90 minutes and used Motivational Interviewing (MI) to facilitate discussion of feedback from participants' survey responses. Sessions began with open-ended questions about contextual factors associated with participants' gambling, then review of each feedback section: gambling pattern; perceived gambling norms; positive expectancies and negative consequences of gambling; beliefs about control over gambling; and situational self-efficacy to avoid gambling. Participants were encouraged to consider the feedback in light of their personal goals. All participants received a copy of their feedback, a list of skills for limiting gambling and a resource/referral list.

Experimental: Cognitive Behavioral Intervention
See Intervention Description
Behavioral: Cognitive Behavioral Intervention
Participants completed either six weekly 1-hour sessions or attend four sessions containing the same content. Sessions covered functional analysis and gambling triggers; challenging cognitive distortions, with emphasis on illusions of control; coping with triggers; assertiveness; and relapse prevention. Participants received a pamphlet covering each week's topic (which was reviewed with the participant if a session was missed), as well as homework sheets and gambling diaries. CBI participants were asked to refrain from gambling for the duration of the group to provide an opportunity to practice and develop skills applicable to gambling and other behavior change situations.

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) [ Time Frame: 6-Months ]
    The 20-item South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) measures gambling involvement and problem severity based on DSM-III-R pathological gambling criteria.

  2. Gambling Quantity and Perceived Norms Scale (GQPN) [ Time Frame: 6 Months ]
    The gambling quantity and perceived norms scale (GQPN) includes a six-item expenditure subscale assessing amount of money won/lost through gambling on a 10-point scale from $0 to more than $2000 over time-periods from the past month to past year. Additional items assess gambling frequency (on a 10-point scale from never to every day in the past year), disposable income (on an 11-point scale from less than $50 to more than $500 per month) and perceptions of gambling frequency and expenditure for the typical college student (perceived norms). Gambling expenditure was calculated as the expenditure subscale mean residualized on disposable income.

  3. Gambling Frequency (SOGS) [ Time Frame: 6 Months ]
    The SOGS was modified to assess internet gambling frequency and expand gambling frequency response options from a three- to a five-point scale with anchors of no times, one to 10 times, more than 10 times, less than weekly, weekly or more than weekly but less than daily, and daily. This modified frequency scale has been shown to correlate highly with other measures of gambling frequency.

  4. Gambling Problems Index (GPI) [ Time Frame: 6 Months ]
    Gambling problems (or negative consequences) were assessed using the 20-item Gambling Problems Index (GPI). Participants indicated how often, from never to more than 10 times in the past 6 months, they experienced consequences while, or as a result of, gambling.

  5. National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen for Pathological Gambling (NODS) [ Time Frame: 6 Months ]
    DSM-IV [1] criteria for pathological gambling were assessed using the 17-item National Opinion Research Center DSM-IV Screen (NODS). Some criteria have multiple items, but possible scores range from 0-10 DSM-IV criteria endorsed in the past 6 months.

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. Illusions of Control [ Time Frame: 6 Months ]
    Illusions of control were assessed via a six-item subscale from the Beliefs About Control Scale (BACS), on a five-point scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   17 Years to 24 Years   (Child, Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  • College student
  • South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) score greater than 3

Exclusion Criteria:

  • None, other than not meeting inclusion criteria

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT00078273

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United States, Washington
University of Washington; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Seattle, Washington, United States, 98195
Sponsors and Collaborators
University of Washington
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)
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Principal Investigator: Mary E Larimer, Ph.D University of Washington, Dept of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
Additional Information:
Publications of Results:
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Responsible Party: Mary Larimer, Professor, University of Washington Identifier: NCT00078273    
Other Study ID Numbers: 23848-C
R21MH067026 ( U.S. NIH Grant/Contract )
First Posted: February 24, 2004    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: December 11, 2013
Last Verified: December 2013
Keywords provided by Mary Larimer, University of Washington:
Pathological Gambling
Problem Gambling
College Students
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders
Mental Disorders