Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite to Increase Nitric Oxide in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease
This study will determine whether dietary nitrates and nitrites can produce nitric oxide in the body and dilate blood vessels in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitric oxide is normally made by endothelial cells that line blood vessels. It plays an important role in maintaining the normal function of arteries by keeping them open and preventing damage from substances such as cholesterol in the blood stream. Coronary artery disease is caused by atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries or build-up of cholesterol and scar tissue within the walls of the arteries). Once arteries become clogged, the ability of the endothelium to produce nitric oxide diminishes considerably and may speed up the disease process, leading to shortness of breath, chest pain, and an increased risk of heart attack or stroke.
Patients 21 years of age and older with coronary artery disease may be eligible for this study. Participants will have a medical history and physical examination, electrocardiogram (recording of the electrical activity of the heart), echocardiogram (ultrasound test of the heart), treadmill exercise stress test (see below), and will meet with a dietitian. They will be hospitalized at the NIH Clinical Center on two occasions. For 1 week before each admission, they will follow a diet prescribed by an NIH nutritionist. The diet before one admission will be high in nitrates and nitrites, and the diet before the other admission will be low in nitrates and nitrites. Each admission will last 4 days, during which participants will undergo the following tests:
- Forearm blood flow study: Small tubes are placed in the artery and vein at the inside of the elbow of the dominant arm (right- or left-handed) and a small tube is placed in a vein of the other arm. The tubes are used for infusing saline (salt water) and for drawing blood samples. A pressure cuff is placed around the upper part of the dominant arm, and a rubber band device called a strain gauge is also placed around the arm to measure blood flow. When the cuff is inflated, blood flows into the arm, stretching the strain gauge at a rate proportional to the flow. Maximum grip-strength of the dominant arm is measured with a dynamometer. Forearm blood flow is measured and blood samples are drawn at the following times: 20 minutes after the tubes are placed; during a hand-grip exercise; and 4 minutes after the exercise is completed.
- Brachial artery reactivity study: This test measures h...
|Coronary Arteriosclerosis||Procedure: Forearm blood flow study Procedure: Brachial artery reactivity study Procedure: Treadmill exercise test||Phase 2|
|Study Design:||Allocation: Randomized
Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment
Masking: Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor
Primary Purpose: Basic Science
|Official Title:||Dietary Nitrate/Nitrite as Sources of Bioactive Nitric Oxide in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease|
- Comparison of forearm blood flow during exercise after 3 days of the nitrate-nitrite-enriched diet to forearm blood flow during exercise after 3 days of the nitrate/nitrite-restricted diet. [ Time Frame: Measured on day 4 of the nitrite/nitrate enriched and restricted diet ]
- Comparison of effects of high versus low nitrate/nitrite diets on exercise forearm blood flow between the two cohorts of patients. [ Time Frame: Measured on day 4 of the nitrite/nitrate enriched and restricted diet. ]
|Study Start Date:||September 25, 2003|
|Primary Completion Date:||May 18, 2009 (Final data collection date for primary outcome measure)|
Please refer to this study by its ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00069654
|United States, Maryland|
|National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, 9000 Rockville Pike|
|Bethesda, Maryland, United States, 20892|