Participants included 34 patients who had never voluntarily quit smoking for longer than 24 hours (continuous smokers), 34 smokers who had quit smoking for at least 24 hours before but had relapsed (relapsers), and 10 former smokers who had been abstinent for at least the past 6 months (successful quitters). We held 7 focus groups, 3 with continuous smokers and 4 with relapsers. Focus groups lasted 2 hours and were held at participants' clinics to preserve confidentiality. We conducted hour-long individual interviews with successful quitters. All participants completed a brief written survey immediately before their session. Survey items included questions on demographics, smoking behaviors, and motivation for cessation, reduction, and nicotine maintenance. We reimbursed all participants $40 and provided a meal to focus group attendees.